Government Unit 1 Test Potential Questions
Terms in this set (70)
How must the concept of "majority rule" be tempered by respect for the opinion of the "minority?"
The majority does not have the right to abuse the minority
Why is Democracy on its purest sense not practical?
people do not have time to consider and vote on every law that could be drafted
"In such condition there is no place for industry, because the fruit thereof is uncertain . . . no arts, no letters, no society, and, which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death, and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." —Thomas Hobbes
What is the "condition" that Hobbes is talking about?
the state of nature
Which of the following is MOST likely a part of a limited government?
written restraints on government power
In a presidential form of government, the head of the Executive Branch is
elected independently and serves a fixed term
"I have never believed that man's freedom consisted in doing what he wants, but rather in never doing what he does not want to do." - Jean Jacques Rousseau
This quote mirrors a common Enlightenment view that
humans can reason and choose their own destiny
How did Enlightenment philosophies impact the American Revolution?
It motivated the colonists to unite and stand up for their rights
The PRIMARY purpose of the Declaration of Independence is to
explain and justify why the colonists revolted against Britain
Which statement reflects an argument of Enlightenment philosophers against the belief in the divine right of kings?
the power of the government is derived from the governed
Which of the following ARE characteristics of a state?
population and sovereignty
Speaker A: The story of history is the story of class struggles. Revolution is necessary to overthrow the ruling class and eventually create a classless society in which no one will be exploited.
Speaker B: The royal power is absolute and the prince need render account of his acts to no one. Where the word of a king is, there is no power. Without this absolute authority, the king could neither do good nor repress evil.
Speaker C: Government should leave business alone. It should let the natural law of supply and demand determine what gets produced, how much gets produced, who does the work, the price of goods, rates of pay, and all other economic questions.
Speaker D: Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. It is the duty of every government to preserve and protect these natural inalienable rights.
Which speaker expresses the views of Karl Marx?
The ideals of the Athenian State, Roman law and the Mayflower Compact contributed MOST significantly to the growth of the principles of
government under law and the consent of the governed
Louis XIV's quote "I am the State" reflected his belief in the idea that kingship was of divine origin and not to be challenged. What is this theory called?
Divine Rights of Kings
The supreme power of a state to act within its territory and have absolute authority over its internal and external affairs is called
John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau would be most likely to support
a society in which the people chose the ruler
"I did not consider it any part of my charge to invent new ideas, but to place before mankind the common sense of the subject in terms so plain and firm as to command their assent . . . It was intended to be an expression of the American mind." —Thomas Jefferson
What is the MAIN purpose of Jefferson's statement?
The Declaration of Independence would state the reasons for the American Revolution
The writers and philosophers of the Enlightenment believed the government decisions should be based on
the concept of divine right of kings
A unitary system of government is different from a federal system of government in that a federal government
has a single leader in charge of all government functions
Writers of the Enlightenment were primarily interested in
changing the relationship between people and their government
Which statement is MOST accurate about the movement for independence in the thirteen colonies?
Protests against British colonial policies gradually led to demands for independence.
Which statement below accurately assesses the impact of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut?
This document served as the first constitution in North America
Which statement BEST describes the influence Locke's Second Treatise on Government had on the US Constitution?
Locked believed that political society was created to protect individual rights
The principles of government that Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence were most influenced by
Rousseau's social contract theory
Many ideals that are important in the US government today came to prominence for political thinkers of the American Revolution. Which philosophy became VERY important to Americans during this time?
Governments only gain the authority to rule from the consent of their people
John Locke's theory of natural rights, as reflected in the Declaration of Independence, states that
individual liberties are should be protected by a strong government
Which phrase from the Declaration of Independence most clearly reflects the idea that the people are the source of government?
". . . deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. . ."
Direct democracy is different from a republican government in that
every person can vote directly on issues in government
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; . . ."
This quotation is evidence that some of the basic ideas in the Declaration of Independence were
reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment
Thomas Hobbes was an Enlightenment thinker considered to be the originator of the social contract theory. According to Hobbes and his ideas on the social contract, which of the following would be TRUE?
People give up certain rights to a government in order to maintain social order
An oligarchy differs from an autocracy in that
Autocracies are ruled by one person while oligarchies are ruled by a few people
Which BEST describes the Enlightenment's impact on democracy?
The Enlightenment inspired democratic ideals about the rights of man
What function of government is most concerned with protecting a nation's people from external threats?
ensuring national security
The 50 individual states lack which basic characteristic of a state (country)?
The English Bill of Rights and the political philosophy of John Locke both support a
Which definition best describes the term government?
the formal institutions and processes through which decisions are made for a group of people
Read the following quote and select the best answer for the question below.
"That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it" is a quote from which American document that expresses which of the following Enlightenment ideas?
Declaration of Independence; Social Contract Theory
Enlightenment era political philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu __________________.
emphasized governmental structures based on reason and social progress
"The states hereby enter into a firm league of friendship with each other, for their common defense, the security of their Liberties, and their mutual and general welfare..." is a quotation which BEST reflects which system of government?
Which of the following series of words can apply to a dictatorship?
autocracy, oligarchy, authoritarian, totalitarian
"Solemnly and mutually in the Presence of God and one of another, covenant [pledge] and combine ourselves together into a Body Politck, for our better Ordering and Preservation and Furtherance of the Ends aforesaid. . . ." —The Mayflower Compact, 1620
According to the Pilgrim leaders, why did they draft the Mayflower Compact?
to help govern themselves, choose their own leaders and create their own laws
Why was the Magna Carta (1215) historically significant in the development of democratic governments?
The document established the principle that no person was above the law and that the government must follow its own laws in its dealings with citizens
Which of the following types of government closely resembles the government practiced by America?
The European Union is to a confederal system as the United States is to a
Which of the following explains the significance of the Mayflower Compact as it relates to US history?
It was the first document to establish a government that ruled with the consent of the governed
In 1922, Benito Mussolini seized control of the Italian government. Labor unions were abolished, strikes were forbidden and political opponents were silenced. Mussolini gave free reign to big business and reduced workers' wages. Mussolini's rule is an example of what type of government?
Which of the following is NOT a reason why the Magna Carta, Petition of Rights and English Bill of Rights are important documents in the development of limiting the power of absolute monarchs?
Established new principles giving kings more power
A totalitarian rule differs from a democracy because
only one person has power in a totalitarian rule
Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws influenced which core democratic value in the US Constitution?
the separation of powers between branches of government
"No freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned,...or in any way harmed...save by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land...To none will we sell, to none deny or delay, right or justice." Magna Carta 1215
According to the statement above, which constitutional guarantee is most related to the Magna Carta?
Rights of the Accused
Which statement of representative democracy distinguishes it from a direct democracy?
An elected group of people make laws
Speaker A: Good government stresses the importance of the nation and accepts the rights of the individual only if the interests of the individual are the same as those of the nation.
Speaker B: The person of the king is sacred and to attack him in any way is to attack religion itself. The respect given to a king is religious in nature.
Speaker C: All human beings are born free and equal with a right to life and liberty. It is the duty of government to protect these natural rights of its citizens.
Speaker D: Our goal will not be achieved by democracy or liberal reforms, but by blood and iron. Only then will we be successful. No nation achieves greatness or unity without the traumatic experiences of war.
Which speaker's statement best reflects the ideas of the Enlightenment?
According to John Locke, why do people enter into a social contract?
to protect their natural rights
Which of the following documents stripped English monarchs of any real power, established Parliament as Britain's center of government, no standing army in peacetime, no ability to suspend laws, no cruel and unusual punishment, no excessive bail, fair and speedy trial?
English Bill of Rights
"It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government, except for all the others that have been tried." Sir Winston Churchill
What is the significance of the above quote?
Every government has problems and imperfections, but democracy is the best form of government compared to all other forms
Which of the following documents was established the principle that the English monarchy was not absolute, included fundamental rights like trial by jury and sought protection against arbitrary actions of the King?
The Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights and Declaration of Independence all
express principles that helped to shape the US government
All of the following are principles of a democracy EXCEPT
providing justice without mercy
The Virginia House of Burgesses and the Mayflower Compact had a SIMILAR effect in that BOTH
contributed to the development of representative democracy
- Government is legitimate only if the people consent to its authority
- If consent is not given to the government by the people, the people have the right to rebel
-Government must protect natural rights (rights all people are born with)
The ideas above are attributed to which of the following important political figures?
"When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner." Montesquieu's statement BEST aligns with which democratic principle of government?
Multiple branches of government
Which theory states that a ruler's power stems directly from the will of God?
the divine right of kings
"Absolute arbitrary power, or governing without settled laws, can neither of them be consistent with the ends of society and government." Which of the following statements is MOST consistent with the Locke quotation?
Governmental power should be limited
A government in which powers are divided between a national government and state governments with the national government being supreme is called a
The Magna Carta required the King to be bound by law. Which of these statements BEST reflects how this idea applies to the idea of limited government?
The government is not above the law and the will of the people
"I answer, such revolutions happen not upon every little mismanagement in public affairs...but if a long train of abuses...all trending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see where they are going; it is not to be wondered, that they should the rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected..." How does the Declaration of Independence compare or contrast with Locke's statement above?
It argues that people have the right to overthrow their government for any reason
Which of the following is the best example of a theocracy?
In Iran, government laws and decisions are closely tied to Islamic teachings in the Koran
In Country A, the elected officials run the government according to a constitution that guarantees the rights and liberties of the citizens. Which of the following best describes the system of government in Country A?
a representative democracy
John Locke wrote that every person is entitled to the natural rights of life, liberty and estate (property). How does that differ from the text of the Declaration of Independence?
The Declaration of Independence does not list "estate" as a natural right
According to Locke, why do people choose to live under governmental rule?
The government will protect the life, liberty and property of all citizens
Which statement BEST describes the underlying principle of the Declaration of Independence?
Government power comes from consent of the governed