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The Modern Language Association style manual for example, its widely used in the humanities (literature, philosophy, history) and is the most popular manual in high school and college writing courses

Works Cited

Always place _______ on a separate page. Have continuing header and page number (same font throughout).
Have ________ centered on top line.
Each new entry is formatted as a hanging indent, always. Do not use numbers, but arrange alphabetically by author's last name. If there is no author, then list by the title.
Book is italicized and article is in quotation marks.


A list of the books referred to in a scholarly work, usually printed as an appendix

Parenthetical Reference

For paraphrased material or direct quotes, the period is after the __________ . There is only ONE period. "Beowulf was the most eager for fame" (Keeping 49). If the quotation is more than 4 lines, the words are all indented the same and the period is before the _____________. (4+lines. (keeping 49) NO PERIOD AFTER!


Quote (a passage, book, or author) as evidence for or justification of an argument or statement, esp. in a scholarly work


The omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are unnecessary or able to be understood from contextual clues. An ellipsis ( . . . ) is three periods with a space before and after each one.


The _________ is a reptition of the exact phrasing that is well-known or explicitly attributed.

Short Quote

If a quotation is four typed lines or fewer, work it into the body of your paper and put quotation marks around it. It may be a good idea to begin with a signal phrase: i.e. Dr. Lawrence asserts, "..."

Long Quote

Quotations of more than four typed lines should be set off from the rest of the writing by indenting each line 10 spaces and double-spacing the material.


If you want to leave out part of the quotation, use an _______ to signify the omission. An _______ ( . . . ) is three periods with a space before and after each one.

Are there any exceptions to the double space guidelines?

No, and there are no extra lines before or after the title

All complete works are either

Italicized or underlined. Whichever method used, be consistent throughout.

what does the comment written "How do you support this claim" mean?

You can't just put your opinion, or what it most likely is. If you can't "show support form the text" (i.e., prove it with a direct quote from whatever is being read) or use an authoritative source such as a subscription database then the claim should be deleted. Your source should be as a parenthetical reference and also must appear in the Works Cited

What is an absolute evaluation?

commentary: never, always, the most . . . . Absolutes usually make the reader defensive in refuting your claim. Avoid absolutes.


1 inch all around


On left margin - double spaced, in order of -

Font size

12 point everywhere, except title of desired

Font style

Arial, Times, or Times New Roman

Hanging indent

used in Works Cited only

Paper titles

Not underlined or italicized unless book title. 12 or 14 point font, bold only if 12 font

Paragraph division

Divide, not one mammoth paragraph. A clear thesis statement, usually at the beginning

How to used numbers correctly in a sentence

numbers from one to nineteen are usually written as words; numbers 20 and over are usually written as numbers


a comprehensive and usually brief review of previously state information. A ____ provides no new information or perspectives

How do I support a thesis statement?

Direct quotations, Summaries, Paraphrasing, Other critics' opinions, Historical and social context

What is a secondary Source?

1.) A book or article that discusses the text you are discussing
2.) A book or article that discusses a theory related to the argument you are making
3.) A book or article that discusses the social and historical context of the text you are discussing

What is a scholastic or peer-reviewed article?

Academically approved articles. Use the school databases. Do not use the internet for your academic research!

value of secondary sources

When you use ____________(s), be sure to show how they relate to your thesis.
Don't overuse any one ___________, or for that matter, secondary sources in general
Remember that this is your paper, your argument - the secondary sources are just helping you out
Never, never, never plagiarize!

Style and Academic writing

_______ writing is FORMAL, not casual or informal.
Do not use first person point of view: I, me, we, our, us, etc.
NEVER use second person point of view: you, your, etc

First and Second person

the pronouns (I, me, my; we, us, our; you, your) really don't belong in the most formal academic writing. Directly addressing the reader changes the dynamic of the essay or paper.

A strong argument

considers with respect - and then defeats - the opposition's main points

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