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Problem of God (THEO 001) - Midterm #1
Terms in this set (44)
using our own intellect and faculties to assess God and his existence
ontological, cosmological, teleological, moral
What are the four types of theistic arguments?
According to ______________, morality is independent on the gods.
In "The Euthyphro," who charges Socrates with not believing in the gods?
In "The Euthyphro," who is prosecuting his own father who killed a murderer?
the gods command it
In "The Euthyphro," what reason does Euthyphro give for charging his father?
all gods love the same thing
In "The Euthyphro," what assumption does Socrates make?
moral arbitrariness, independent moral standard
In "The Euthyphro," what are the two "horns" of Socrates' argument?
Euthyphro unsure of what is holy so he shouldn't be confident in the prosecution of his father
In "The Euthyphro," what conclusion does Socrates make about Euthyphro and the prosecution of his father?
is something good because the gods love it or do the gods love it because it is good
What is the Euthyphro problem?
simple features of the world; only reason for their existence must be God; a posteriori; based on assertions of the first mover and a cause to prove God exists
argument from design; pick complex fact of world --> only explanation must be that God made it; a posteriori; provide proof that God exists on the observation that natural things act for an end or purpose
appeal to moral experience; a posteriori
doesn't appeal to real world; begins with conception of God --> proves the necessity for this type of being; a priori; rest on the concept of God as proof of existence
1. if God does not exist, then objective moral values and duties do not exist
2. objective moral values do exist
3. God exists
What are William Lane Craig's 3 premises regarding God's existence (moral argument)?
Which author uses the "watch in a field" example?
Whose key idea is that you can't have a design without an intelligent, purposeful designer?
chance, natural law, intelligent designer
According to William Paley, what are three possible explanations for design?
This author argues that there is an intelligent designer but does not necessarily say it HAS to be the Christian God, although he personally does believe it is.
Darwin challenges _________________ argument because evolutionary change show how blind and mechanistic the natural world is.
1. fine-tuning of the universe is due to the physical necessity, change, or design
2. it is not due to physical necessity or chance
3. it is due to design
What are William Lane Craig's 3 premises regarding God's existence (teleological argument)?
fine-tuning, chance, physical necessity
According to William Lane Craig, what are three possible explanations for the creation of the universe (teleological argument)?
What type of argument does St. Anselm propose?
St. Anselm says that is ____________________ to NOT believe in God. He proceeds to show this.
Who argues that God must exist in reality because He exists in our mind but to exist in reality is greater than to exist in our mind and thus must be real?
Which arguments does William Rowe critique?
example of perfect island
In response to St. Anselm's ontological argument, Gaunilo provides which example?
Which famous thinker critiques St. Anselm's argument because existence is not a quality you can ascribe to something?
Which thinker objects to St. Anselm's argument because numbers run to infinity so why is God the final conception of greatness if greatness runs to infinity?
contingent, impossible (think square-circle), necessary, possible
According to Rowe, what are the four types of existence?
In response to St. Anselm's ontological argument, Rowe provides an example of a __________________ and _________________.
In response to St. Anselm's ontological argument, Rowe's final conclusion is that we need _____________________ _____________________.
in itself, to us
According to Thomas Aquinas, what are the two meanings of "self evident"?
demonstratio quia (effect-to-cause)
What type of cause-and-effect reasoning does Thomas Aquinas use?
motion, efficient causes, possibility/necessity, ex gradibus, design
What are the 5 ways according to Thomas Aquinas?
What type of argument does Richard Taylor defend?
Which author provides the example of walking in a forest and finding a translucent sphere?
Which author provides the principle of sufficient reason as an explanation for the existence of everything?
principle of sufficient reason
must be explanation for existence of everything
by something else, by nothing (according to Taylor's PSR, nothing can be this), by itself
According to Richard Taylor, what are the 3 different ways to explain the existence of something?
1. every being is either contingent or necessary
2. not every being can be contingent
3. there exists a necessary being
What are the 3 premises of Richard Taylor's modern cosmological argument?
something explained by nothing is a brute fact and does exist
Rowe share's the same 3 different ways to explain something's existence, but provides one crucial difference?
fallacy of composition (whole does not necessarily have characteristics of its parts), fallacy of cause (if every part has a cause, it doesn't mean that the whole also has the same cause), whole not greater than its parts
What are 3 (flawed) arguments to the modern cosmological argument that Taylor proposes?
principle of sufficient reason is false
What is Rowe's main criticism of the principle of sufficient reason?
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