AP Psychology - Chapter 3
Stress and Health Psychology
Terms in this set (61)
The nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it; the arousal, both physical and mental, to situations or events that we perceive as threatening or challenging.
Who was renowned for their research and writing in the area of stress since the 1930s?
Trigger or stimulus that prompts a stressful reaction.
______ placing a demand on the body can cause stress.
Pleasant, desirable stress; helps arouse and motivate us toward great accomplishments.
Unpleasant, threatening stress
What aspects of stress have health psychologists been chiefly concerned with?
The negative effects of stress
One of the major sources of stress; Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe believed that change of any kind that required some adjustment in behavior or lifestyle could cause some degree of stress.
Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)
This was created by Homes and Rahe. It asked people to check off all the life events they had experienced in the last year as a way to measure their stress. It only shows a correlation between stress and illness.
State of ongoing arousal in which the parasympathetic system cannot activate the relaxation response. Ongoing, unrelenting stressors, such as war, a bad marriage, poverty, ill health, or an intolerable political climate, also contribute to stress.
Work-related stress, including unemployment, role conflict, and burnout. Assembly-line work ranks high in this category.
This is another common source of a job stressor. It occurs when one is forced to take on two or more different and incompatible roles at the same time. Being a student and a worker is a good example of this conflict.
State of psychological and physical exhaustion resulting from chronic exposure to high levels of stress and little personal control.
Small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes become a major source of stress. Divorce is an example because it contains many different hassles.
Unpleasant tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic activity resulting from a blocked goal. A negative emotional state generally associated with a blocked goal, such as not being accepted for admission to your first-choice college.
Forced choice between two or more incompatible goals or impulses. There are three basic types: approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance.
Forced choice between two options both of which have equally desirable characteristics; least stressful conflict to resolve.
Forced choice between two options both of which have equally undesirable characteristics; difficult, stressful conflict, generally resolved with delay.
Forced choice within one option, which has equally desirable and undesirable characteristics; difficult, stressful conflict, generally resolved with delay and/or partial approach.
Stressful occurrences that occur suddenly and generally affect many people simultaneously. Due to the shared experience, there is mutual social support to help people cope.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for arousing the body and mobilizing its energy during times of stress also called the "fight-or-flight" system.
General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selye's three stage (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) reaction to chronic stress.
Sympatho-Adreno-Medullary (SAM) System
Body's initial, rapid-acting stress response, involving the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla; the first alarm reaction is controlled by this.
The adrenals secrete this, which activate bodily changes necessary for "fight or flight." (norepinephrine and epinephrine)
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (HPA) Axis
Body's delayed stress response, involving the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal cortex. This involves more direct communication between the brain and the endocrine system. this sends signals to the pituitary gland, which stimulates the cortex of the adrenal glands to secrete corticosteroids.
These hormones, especially cortisol, activate the body's energy supplies and help fight inflammation.
Tell the hypothalamus to turn off the stress response. This is the proper feedback loop that "turns on and off" a healthy, appropriate response to stress.
Body's tendency to maintain a relatively balanced and stable internal state, such as a constant internal temperature; equilibrium.
Underaroused state where the adrenal glands become exhausted from the demands of chronic stress, which leads to chronically low levels of cortisol (asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia).
Being chronically overaroused by stress, leading to a prolonged elevation of cortisol. This depletes the normal supply of cortisol, and can also permanently disrupt the feedback system that normally shuts off the stress response.
Interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of psychological and other factors on the immune system.
Showed that prolonged stress can permanently damage the hippocampus, a key part of the brain involved in memory.
Natual Killer Cells
A type of immune system cell.
A thickening and hardening of the walls of the coronary arteries that reduces or blocks the blood supply to the heart. This causes angina (chest pains) or heart attacks. Coronary heart disease results from this.
Type A Personality
Behavior characteristics including intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile outlook.
Type B Personality
Behavior characteristics consistent with a calm, patient, relaxed attitude.
Who were the first people to identify and describe the Type A personality?
Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman (1959)
Aims to change all the behaviors that relate to the Type A personality
Target Behavior Approach
Focuses only on those Type A behaviors that are likely to cause heart disease - namely, cynical hostility.
Studied how some people survive in the face of great tragedy and stress.
Resilient personality with a strong Commitment to personal goals, Control over life, and viewing change as a Challenge rather than a threat.
Not something based on luck or genetics; hardiness is an example.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Anxiety discorder following exposure to a life-threatening or other extreme event that evoked great horror or helplessness; characterized by flashbacks, nightmares, and impaired functioning. Became a formal category of mental disorders in 1980.
Acute Stress Disorder (ASD)
In cases where individuals' symptoms have been present for less than 1 month, a more appropriate diagnosis may be this.
Studies how biological, psychological, and social factors interact in health and illness.
An attempt to manage stress in some effective way. It is a process, not a single act.
According to Richard Lazarus, this means how we interpret events. It is one of the most important determinants how we cope with stress.
Deciding if a situation is harmful, threatening, or challenging.
Assessing one's resources and choosing a coping method.
Managing one's emotional reactions to a stressful situation. Ex. You don't get hired for a job. "Oh well, I didn't really want that job anyway."
A healthier from of emotion-focused coping, where you could read a book, exercise or call a friend.
Dealing directly with a stressor to decrease or eliminate it.
What is the goal of stress?
To manage it, not eliminate it. Some stress is healthy.
Resources for Healthy Living
Health & exercise, positive beliefs, social skills, social support, control, material resources, sense of humor,and relaxation.
External Locus of Control
Believing that chance or outside forces beyond one's control determine one's fate.
Internal Locus of Control
Believing that one controls one's own fate.
This technique teaches people to recognize the difference between tense and relaxed muscles.
Love technology and are not stressed by it.
Take the wait-and-see attitude, but once they are convinced a new technology will make their lives better, they try to adopt it.
Avoid - or even fear - new technology.