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Unit 3 Part 2
4-Genetics 5-Pedigrees & Mutations 6-Karyotypes 7-Biotechnology
Terms in this set (59)
a programmable molecular scissor that can cut DNA anywhere
a method used to rapidly make multiple copies of a specific segment of DNA; can be used to make millions of copies of DNA from a very small amount of DNA
A process where fragments are separated according to charge and size using electrical currents
use and application of living things and biological processes to improve human life
whole organism cloning
Making copies of entire organisms
Splitting an embryo to create two genetically identical embryos; can occur in the lab or happen naturally (identical twins)
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
transgenic organism OR GMO
the organism whose genome has been modified by the introduction of an external DNA sequence
widely used solid (gel) culture medium used in electrophoresis; contains wells where DNA is loaded into
A laboratory instrument used to measure, dispense, and transfer very small amounts of liquid.
piece of circular DNA that is frequently used to make biologically make many copies of a human gene
If the trait is NOT shown in the parents, but is present in the offspring▬then the trait is _______________
There are significantly more males with the trait than females with the trait.
If the trait is shown in the parents, but is NOT present in the offspring▬then the trait is _______________
square on the pedigree
circle on the pedigree
horizontal, connects husband and wife
oldest on the left, youngest on the right- connected from top and line comes down on each
has the trait or disorder
a diagram that shows the phenotype of a particular genetic trait in a family from one generation to the next
Represents an individual without the trait in a pedigree
a random error or change in genetic material
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
A change to a chromosome in which a fragment of the chromosome is removed.
A mutation in which a nucleotide or a codon in DNA is replaced with a different nucleotide
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
A mutation that occurs when a chromosome piece breaks off and reattaches in reverse order
The process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
Any cells in the body (but NOT reproductive cells)
sex cells (sperm and egg)
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
The different forms of a gene
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Having two identical alleles for a trait
Having two different alleles for a trait
An organisms genetic makeup, or allele combinations
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its genotype
A blended phenotype. One allele is not completely dominant over the other
both alleles of a gene are present in the phenotype
when traits are determined by alleles on the sex chromosomes
The ratio of genotypes that could appear in offspring
the ratio of phenotypes that could appear in offspring
The father of genetics - Experimented with pea plants
Law of independent assortment
Genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
Law of dominance
When organisms which are homozygous for contrasting traits are crossed, all of their offspring will show the dominant trait
Law of segregation
Pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed
a genetic cross that involves one pair of contrasting alleles for a trait
A cell containing two full sets of chromosomes (one from father and one from mother). In humans, the diploid number is 46.
A cell containing a single set of chromosomes (one of each kind - half)
a section of the DNA (chromosome) that codes for a specific trait (e.g. eye color or hair color)
46 pairs of chromosomes
How many pairs of chromosomes present in humans
The analysis of DNA from samples of body tissues or fluids in order to identify individuals.
mutation in which one part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
Mutation in which a chromosome piece reattaches to original chromosome but in reverse orientation
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
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