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24 terms

Physiology Vocabulary

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myelin sheath
fatty insulating sheath that surrrounds all bu the smallest nerve fibers
motor (efferent nerves)
nerves that carry impulses leaving the brain and spinal cord, and destines foreffectors
brain stem
collectively the mid brain, pons and medulla of the brain
ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
Oligodendrocyte
a type of CNS supporting cell that composes myelin sheaths
nerve
a bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
specific gray matter areas located deep within the cerebral hemisphere
cerebellum
brain region most involved in producing smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle ctivity
neuron (nerve cell)
cell of nervous system specialized to generate and transmit electrial signals (action portentials and graded potentials)
schwann cell
type of supporting cell in peripheral nervous system forms myelin sheath vital to peripheral nerve fiber regeneration
Node of ranvier(myselin sheath gaps)
gaps between schwann cells
archnoid mater
middle layer of the three meniges (weblike)
synapse
functionsl junction or point of close contact between two nervous or between a neuron and an effector cell
neuron cell body
the biosynthetic center of a neuron also called the perikaryon or soma cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasmalike fluid that fills the cavities of the SNA and surrounds the CNS externally protects the brain and spinal cord
central sulcus
sulci(furrows); the central sulcus which lies in the frontal plan separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
cerebral hemisphere
the cerebral hemisphere and the structures of the diencephalon
postsynaptic neuron
the neuron transmitting the electrual signal away from the synapse
presynaptic neuron
the neuron conducting impulses toward th synapse
graded potential
local change in membrane potentail that varies directly with strength of stimulus declines with distance
axon
neuron process that carries impulses away form the nerve cell body; the conducting portion of a nerve cell
dendrite
branching neuron process that serves as a receptive, or input region; transmits an electrical signal toward the cell body
sensory (afferent) nerves
contain process of sensory neurons, carry impulses to CNS
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
plasma like fluid that filled the cavities of the CNS and surrounds the CNS externally; protects the brain and spinal cord
commissure
connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres