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chapter 2 part 2
Terms in this set (43)
CT (Computed tomography) Scan:
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite.
device that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to record waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface.
(The tracing of those brain waves is an electroencephalogram.)
PET (positron emission tomography) Scan:
is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.
distinguish among different types of brain tissue = generate images of the brain's anatomy.
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging):
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
fMRI scans show brain function, rather than structure
Examines oxygen-laden blood flow to see which parts of the brain are active.
the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull.
It is responsible for automatic survival functions. (includes below objects)
the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
acts as a filter for some of the sensory messages traveling from your spinal cord to your thalamus, relaying important information to other areas of your brain.
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
It forwards these replies to your medulla and cerebellum for processing.
It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem.
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum,
associated with emotions such as fear, aggression, drives for food and sex. (includes below objects)
It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
consists of two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to emotions but mainly fear, AAggression and AAnger.
Anger!!! first letter
directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions.
It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
Hypo; lies below.
Hippocampus (not on slides)
particularly important in forming new memories and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
acts as a memory indexer by sending memories out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for long-term storage and retrieving them when necessary.
involved in several functions of the body including:
Consolidation of New Memories
It is the body's ultimate control and information processing center. The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres.
Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures.
(frontal parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes)
(forehead)Planning, judgment, execution, & control of movement.
The Motor Cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
(top to rear head):Include the sensory cortex and are responsible for receiving sensory input for touch and body position.
The Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.
Include the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
visual cortex: The visual cortex of the occipital lobes at the rear of your brain receives input from your eyes.
the visual cortex is active as the subject looks at faces.
Temporal Lobe(side of head)
Includes the auditory cortex, which receives information from the ears.
The auditory cortex is active in patients who hallucinate.
Aphasia (is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage.)
(!)Broca's area: speaking is impaired due to damage of the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe. hard to say name; frontal.
(!)Wernicke's area: understanding is impaired due to damage of the left hemisphere of the temporal lobe. hard to hear name; temporal
the brain's ability to modify itself after some type of injury or illness.
This large band of neural fibers connects the two brain hemispheres (at the center).
With the corpus callosum severed, Objects presented in the right visual field can be named, while objects in the left visual field cannot be named.
(not on reviews sheet)
1.Sleep Protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm's way.
2.Sleep Recuperates: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue.
3.Sleep Helps Remembering: Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories.
4.Sleep and Growth: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less.
(not on review sheet)
are controlled by internal "biological clocks." there are 4 types
1. Annual cycles: On an annual cycle, geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate, and humans experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep, and mood.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder people experience during dark winter months.
2. 28-day cycles: The female menstrual cycle averages 28 days. Research shows menstruation may not affect moods.
3. 90-minute cycles: We go through various stages of sleep in 90-minute cycles.
4. 24-hour cycles (Circadian Rhythms): Humans experience 24-hour cycles of varying alertness (sleep), body temperature, and growth hormone secretion
occur on a 24-hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness, which are disrupted during transcontinental flights.
24-hour cycles (Biological Clock): Humans experience 24-hour cycles of varying alertness (sleep), body temperature, and growth hormone secretion
During PEEK CIRCADIAN AROUSAL, people are Thinking at their sharpest and their memory is the most accurate
Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease (morning) melatonin from the pineal gland and increase (evening) it at night fall.
During strong mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast, irregular beta waves (15-30 cps).
An awake person involved in a conversation shows beta activity.
When an individual closes his eyes but remains awake, his brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves (9-14 cps).
A meditating person exhibits an alpha brain activity.
About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages.
Stage 1: Theta waves, hypnogogic sensations, hallucinations (barely asleep)
Stage 2: Theta waves, sleep spindles (bursts of brain activity), Can sleep talk at this or other stages. (clearly asleep)
Stage 3: Transitional
Stage 4: DEEP; Sleep walking, bedwetting, night terrors (all are most likely to occur in children)
Stage 5: REM Sleep (random eye movement)
Theta waves, hypnogogic sensations, hallucinations
During this brief Stage you may experience fantastic images resembling hallucinations—sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus, a sensation of falling (at which moment your body may suddenly jerk) or of floating weightlessly.
These sensations may later be woven into your memories.
People who claim to have been abducted by aliens—often shortly after getting into bed—commonly recall being floated off or pinned down on their beds
Theta waves, sleep spindles (bursts of brain activity), Can sleep talk at this or other stages.
You then relax more deeply and begin about 20 minutes of Stage 2 sleep, with its periodic sleep spindles—bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain -wave activity
Although you could still be awakened without too much difficulty, you are now clearly asleep.
breifly tranaitions between just asleep and deep sleep
Stage 4 (DEEP)
Sleep walking, bedwetting, night terrors
(all are most likely to occur in children)
In deep sleep, your brain emits large, slow delta waves. These two slow -wave stages last about 30 minutes.
In this stage you are hard to awaken.
but babies crying and name calling may trigger being awoken
(It is at the end of the deep sleep of Stage 4 that children may wet the bed.)
Stage 5 (REM)
REM Sleep (random eye movement)
A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams /nightmares.
• Recurring sleep stage
•" paradoxical sleep"
- Muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
Your brain's motor cortex is active during REM sleep, but your brainstem blocks its messages; This leaves your muscles relaxed, so much so that, except for an occasional finger, toe, or facial witch, you are essentially paralyzed.
Stage 5 (REM) part 2
Moreover, you cannot easily be awakened.
Your heart rate rises and your breathing becomes rapid and irregular. (If you are a snorer, your snoring usually stops.)
Every half -minute or so, your eyes dart around in a brief burst of activity behind closed lids.
These eye movements announce the beginning of a dream—often emotional, usually storylike, and richly hallucinatory.
After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4)
the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Although still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves (15-40 cps) much like awake-aroused state.
90 minute sleep cycle
With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases.
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
Fatigue and subsequent death.
Impaired creativity, concentration, and communication.
Greater vulnerability; Depressed immune system; suppress immune cells that fight off viral infections and cancer
Frequency of accidents increase with loss of sleep
Chronic sleep debt alters metabolism and hormonal functioning in ways that mimic aging.
Can make you fatter; It increases ghrelin, a hunger-arousing hormone and decreases its hunger suppressing partner, leptin.
It also increases cortisol, a stress hormone that stimulates fat production.
Experimental sleep deprivation of adults increases appetite and eating
Sleepwalking and sleeptalking are usually childhood disorders, and, like narcolepsy, they run in families.
Sleepwalking is usually harmless. After returning to bed on their own or with the help of a family member, few sleepwalkers recall their trip the next morning.
Frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM.
Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during SWS. Usually in children.
Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up.
uncontrollable sleep attacks, sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep.
Failure to breathe when asleep.
repeatedly stops breathing until blood oxygen is so low it awakens the person just long enough to draw a breath.
Sleep apnea is linked with obesity, particularly among men.
Other warning signs are loud snoring, daytime sleepiness and irritability, lack of energy, and (possibly) high blood pressure
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
What do we Dream? (not on review sheet)
Negative Emotional Content: 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content.
Failure Dreams: People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune.
Sexual Dreams: Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30.
Dreams of Gender: Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women.
Wish Fulfillment: Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. The dream's manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings.
Information Processing: Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day's experiences in our memories.
Physiological Function: Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways. Neural networks of newborns are quickly developing; therefore, they need more sleep.
Activation-Synthesis Theory: Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity.
Cognitive Development: Some researchers argue that we dream as a part of brain maturation and cognitive development.
Recommended textbook explanations
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
David Barlow, V Durand
Child Development: An Active Learning Approach
Richard A. Kasschau
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