Dr. Harris Western Civ since 1500 Exam 1

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The 3 C's of historical Study
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What characteristics of European geography made for good sailors?-Broad and navigable rivers = trade/cultural exchange -Sailors were also use to rough seas and bad storms.Name four things the medieval world had, and four things they didn't. Be prepared for True/false questions on this.-What they had: spiritual certainty, rural prosperity, towns & unions, universities, social hierarchy. -What they didn't have: identification paperwork, cities of ½ million, universal education, printing press, emphasis on the individual.Where were the medieval universities? What was similar? What was different?-Oxford, Cambridge, Salerno, Paris -They had large populations, higher education -They didn't have an actual campus or locationWhat were the elements of the Trivium? The Quadrivium?-Trivium: grammar, rhetoric, logic. -Quadrivium: math, geometry, astronomy, music.Define subsistence affluence.achievement of a good standard of living through reliance on self-sufficiency in local foods and with little cash income.How was the Holy Roman Emperor selected?A group of electors in the Holy Roman Empire would be elected.Name the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.Cologne, Trier, Mainz, Brandenburg, Palatine, Saxony, & BohemiaName the four elements of the universe. Name the heavenly element? Name the four corresponding humors & personality type?-4 elements: Fire, Earth, Air, Water -Ether -4 Humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm—and their influence on the body and its emotions.What was the Commercial Revolution?-The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 13th century until the early 18th century.Define capitalism.-an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.Where did the Hanseatic League trade?-Germany, Latvia, Netherlands, Poland, Estonia, SwedenName two banking families in Europe.-Medici -FuggersWhat does "Renaissance" mean?rebirthList the predecessors for the Italian Renaissance. What were the characteristics of these?Carolingian, 12 Century. Preserved the classics, new literary forms, religious reformsWhy did the Renaissance begin in Italy?Geographic advantage of a peninsula, prosperous trading crossroads, stable economy and population, Italian heritage, independent cities (= diversity)Which city was the leading city of Italy culturally? financially?FlorenceWhat were the characteristics of the Italian Renaissance?Urban phenomenon, gradual movement northward, present-minded, humanism and creation of secular division, revival of classical texts, vernacular writing, the Renaissance and self-awareness, and the new renaissance politicsDefine humanismThe study of what it means to be human.What was the new motto of the Renaissance humanists?Back to the SourceWhat subjects were added to the curriculum in the Renaissance?History, poetry, geography, languageWhat was Petrarch's most famous work? What was his point?-My Secret which he wrote about his Ascent of Mt. Ventu - he wanted to be happy on earth not just in heaven, wanted to take his own actions without the overarching weight of religionWhat is Dante Aligheri's great work? What is significant about it for the Renaissance?-The Divine Comedy -tour of heaven, hell, and purgatory. The tour guide was from the classical age.What was important about Vasari? What was his great work? What did it say?-The Lives of the Great Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550) -In the book he coined the term "riniscita" which means renewal.Who were the Medici? What role did they play in Florentine politics? What titles did they claim? What was the significance of this?-The Medici were a middle class family that lived during the Italian Renaissance that through banking rose to a great amount of wealth and power, like that of nobles. -They were the first citizen or ruler of Florence without the title. -They were the main benefactor to many artists within the city of FlorenceHow did Cosimo di Medici affect the founding of the Renaissance? How did the later Medici influence the Renaissance?-Cosimo di Medici was a banking innovator, as he creates, double bookkeeping, Bill of Exchange, and book transfers, systems that we still use today. -This allows Cosimo to become a great patron of the arts. He sponsors local Florentine Sculptures, painters, and architects.What titled positions did the Medici eventually occupy in Europe?Popes, Bishops, Nobles, Dukes, and queensHow did Constantinople influence the Renaissance?-Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire so many scholars and artist fled to florence.List three political writers of the Renaissance. What are their works and their messages?-Thomas More- Utopia (First to write about a perfect and self contained society) -Dante Alighieri- The Divine Comedy (How to live ethically and follow God's Law) -Niccolo Machiavelli- The Prince (It is better to be feared than loved)What qualities should a Prince have according to Machiavelli? Why was Machiavelli writing? (In The Prince)the inner being of a person does not matter, only actions matter; You only have to appear religious; It's better to be feared than loved; ruthless politics.Give six characteristics of the visual arts of the Renaissance.Three-dimensional perspective, chiaroscuro, contrapposto, linear perspective, expression, and colorWhat was Leonardo da Vinci's background? What areas of art/ science was Leonardo proficient in?-known for being experimental and trying out new ideas or styles of art -Proficient in Painter, Sculptor, architect, inventorWhat four areas was Michelangelo proficient in?Sculpture, architecture, paintingWhat was Michelangelo's nickname? How large was The David?-il divino -17 feet tallWhat does Michelangelo's Pieta depict? What is striking about it?-Mary holding Jesus' body -The emotion and life like draperyDescribe Michelangelo's Moses.- It has horns because the old churches translation of versus in exodus talks about Moses having "HORNS"What was controversial and revolutionary of the Ceiling?In the Sistine Chapel there is depictions of nudity.Why was The Last Judgment of Michelangelo considered controversial? Why was the Sistine Chapel ceiling controversial?-It had the most controversial nudity painting in the chapel. -The restorations of the Sistine chapel ceiling were too severe.Who was the "Prince of the Northern Humanists"?Erasmus of RotterdamGive two examples of a "Renaissance man" and explain why each fits the definition.-Henry VIII: knew many languages, athletic and he composed music -Galileo: successful professor of mathematics,created the telescope, and the military compassWhat was the political purpose behind some of Shakespeare's writings? For whom did he write?He wrote to promote the Tudor and Stuart Monarchs.What similarities existed between Shakespeare's work & Michelangelo's?................Give four examples of Shakespeare's themes/ contributions in his work and an exemplary work.-Romeo + Juliet - violence, youthful disobedience -MacBeth - hunger for power; madness -Hamlet - Rhetoric and power -King lear - madnessWho was responsible for the dome of the cathedral of Florence (duomo)? How large is it?-Brunelleschi -Massive - 375.7 feet tallExplain three challenges of building the duomo. How were these solved?-being able to support a dome that size -being able to build a free standing dome -how to get the material up to the domeWhat had to be invented or rediscovered to build the Dome of the Cathedral of FlorenceCementWhat were the stages of the Reformation?initial attempts at reform(before 1517), protestant reforms (protesting), catholic reformation, religious warfare (beginning by 1525)What did the Seamless Robe of Christ refer to?The idea that not even the men casting lots for Jesus's robe would tear it apart due to its divine owner, and that the Catholic church wanted to reform without tearing apart.What are the Seven Sacraments and the purpose of each?Baptism, communion, confirmation, confession, holy orders, marriage, and anointing of sickName and describe the Seven Deadly Sins.Pride, envy, gluttony, lust, sloth, greed, wrathExplain the basis of the authority of the Pope.as pastor of the entire Catholic Church, has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhinderedWhat was Petrine Theory?That Peter was the first Pope in RomeDefine Anathemaa formal curse by a pope or a council of the Church, excommunicating a person or denouncing a doctrine.Define Excommunicationthe action of officially excluding someone from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church.Define Transubstantiationthe conversion of the substance of the Eucharistic elements into the body and blood of Christ at consecration, only the appearances of bread and wine still remaining.Define Heresybeliefs deferring from the churchDefine Consubstantiationthe doctrine, especially in Lutheran belief, that the substance of the bread and wine coexists with the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist.Define Interdictan authoritative prohibitionWho was John Wycliff? What was his message? What was his fate? Who were the Lollards?-A preacher in Oxford -That the church had fallen in to sin especially the papacy -He died from stroke -The Lollards were his followersWho was John Hus? What was his message? How was his fate different from John Wycliffe?-Was a theologian and philosopher -Called for a higher level of morality among the priesthood as well as condemning sexual immorality and Financial abuse -He was burned at the stake in 1415 -He was declared a heretic and killed while Wycliffe wasn't declared a heretic until after he was dead for a while.Who was Savonarola? What was the Bonfire of the Vanities?-A christian preacher and reformer -Followers of Savonarola collected and burned any books and art that was hereticalWhat did Martin Luther have in common with these men? What faith issue did Martin Luther struggle with?-He was a Christian Theologian and a monk -He struggled with GracePrior to 1516, who was responsible for the last translation of the Bible? What problems were there with that translation?-St. Jerome in 382 -Moses' horns, Do penace//Be PenitentWho translated the Bible in 1516? What major doctrine of Catholicism did he shake with his translation?-Erasmus of Rotterdam -PenanceWhat does Humpty Dumpty refer to?Based on the Pope's crown because it looked like an egg and all the "king'" that tried to put him back together is Charles IV trying to reassemble the Catholic church.Who were the Renaissance Popes? What problems did they have (spiritually speaking)?-Alexander VI (1492-1503) Open mistresses and illegitimate children -Julius II (1503-1513) warrior pope -Leo X (1513-1521) lack of piety + obvious corruption (nepotism)Define Simony. What sorts of problems did this create for the Catholic Church?-the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges, for example pardons or benefices. -lay investiture, and clerical marriage and celibacy all affected the church. They placed unnecessary power in the hands of lay rulers. They corrupted the office of the papacy to a degree.What were indulgences?Get out of hell free passes" they could pay to make sins "go away" like they never happened or got cancelled outExplain the scenario involving indulgences and simony that so angered Martin Luther.Bishops were too busy to do actual work, weren't necessarily good at it, and didn't earn positionWho was Johann Tetzel? Bishop Albrecht?-a church salesman (corrupt clergy) -Archbishop who's goal was to raise money for church infrastructureWhat were the 95 Theses? Who answered?-Luther's list of complaints against the church -Johann Tetzel respondedWhat was the Diet of Worms? What happened to Luther?-Meeting of the German princes; Luther was asked to testify, then recant he refused -was excommunicated, and then kidnapped for his safetyWho was Frederick the Wise of Saxony?-likes Luther, protects him, he is in the midst of a disagreement with the diet of Worms (He sends the knights to kidnap him) so he does everything he can to be a help to LutherWhy was the Reformation of Martin Luther successful? (Seven reasons -- be specific about each one)1. Scholarship of Renaissance & its impact 2. Gutenburg & the printing press. 3. Leo X's inaction. 4. Frederick the Wise's Protection. 5. Charles V HRE- occupied with Turks. 6. Suleiman the Magnificent- kept Charles V occupied. 7. Francis I of France whose sister was a protestantWho was Johannes Guttenberg? Why is he important?The inventor of the printing press; makes his writings super accessibleWho fought in the Battle of Lepanto? Who won & what was the significance of this?-WHO: Spain and Ottoman Empire/Turks, -WINNER: HRE, SIGNIFICANCE: kept Charles V occupied and kept Turks out of EuropeWho was the step-father of the Reformation? Why?Suleiman the Magnificent; occupied Charles VWhat countries outside of the Holy Roman Empire became Lutheran strongholds? Why?-Germany, England, Switzerland - Several times they had freedom of their faithWhere did Ulrich Zwingli begin his work? What reforms did he make?Switzerland, believed mass was symbolicWhat effect on Swiss society did Zwingli's reforms have?Became stronghold of protestant reformantionWho was John Calvin? Where was he from? What was his great work?-A preacher from France (Genova) -Major leader of the reformation and The institutes of the Christian ReligionWhat was the religious position of the Calvinists? Include Predestination.-Emphasized the sovereignty of the scriptures and predestination -a doctrine holding that God chooses those who will enter Heaven based His omnipotence and grace.Who were the Huguenots? How were they treated initially?-French protestant followers of Calvin -they were originally treated well because of Francis I's sister who was protestantWho led the Reformation in Scotland? What were his beliefs?-John Knox. Calvinist; helped spread Calvin's message to Scotland -helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed churchWho were the Anabaptist? What did they believe?-Anabaptist who were very radical reformers. Either very passive or very violent -They believed you could be baptized as an adult (later formed into Mennonites)Who was Meno Simmons?An anabaptist and the Mennonite founderWho was Jan Matthys? What were their beliefs?A anabaptist who rejected the passive and non-violent ideals and followed a more oppressive view.Who opposed the Anabaptists? Why?-Roman Catholics and Protestant both opposed the Anabaptist. -They were radical idealistWhy does a monarch refer to themselves as "we"?Refers to the king's two bodies, Body Politic (Monarch/Nation) and Body Natural (physical body)What is the difference between heirs male and heirs general?-The males are the ones who receive the estate -Heirs General are the people who receive land or property when there is no will to go off ofWhy was religious unity considered vital?Because if the church is divided the papacy doesn't have the power and control as it use to.What made Henry VIII break away from the Catholic Church? What reforms occurred in England?-His wife was infertile, so he wanted to divorce her so that he could have an heir. -The act of supremacy that make Henry the ruler of the churchName Henry VIII's wives in order and their children1.Catherine of Aragon - only child to survive was Henry and Catherine's daughter, Mary 2. Anne Boleyn - one daughter, Elizabeth 3. Jane Seymour - gave birth to Edward VI, and then died 4. Anne of Cleves - 6 month marriage, no children 5. Catherine Howard - only 19 - executed for adultery 6. Catherine Parr - no children.Name 3 CATHOLIC area of EuropeSpain, Italy, FranceName 3 protestant areas of EuropeEngland, Denmark, Sweden3 European explorers of 15th and 16th centuryColumbus, Magellan, Coriez5 Asian Elementswood, metal, earth, fire, water3 medieval social classesthose who work (Peasants), Fight (Warriors), and pray (Clergymen)