26 terms

AP Psych Unit 10

Unit 10 Test: Intelligence, Testing, and Individual Differences Textbook chapter 11 2010/2011 AP Psych
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intelligence
an overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
operational definition
the actions or procedures used to measure a concept.
aptitude
a capacity for learning certain abilities.
general intelligence test
a test that measures a wide variety of mental abilities.
reliability
the ability of a test to yield the same score, or nearly the same score, each time it is given to the same person.
validity
the ability of a test to measure what it purports to test.
objective test
a test that gives the same score when different people correct it.
test standardization
establishing standards for administering a test and interpreting scores.
norm
an average score for a designated group of people.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
an index of intelligence defined as mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.
performance intelligence
intelligence measured by solving puzzles and other nonverbal tasks.
verbal intelligence
intelligence measured by answering questions involving vocabulary, arithmetic, and other language- or symbol-oriented tasks.
normal curve
a bell-shaped curve characterized by a large number of scores in a middle area, tapering to very few extremely high and low scores.
giftedness
either the possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes.
mental retardation
the presence of a developmental disability, an IQ score below 70, or a significant impairment of adaptive behavior.
phenylketonuria
a genetic disease that allows phenylpyruvic avid to accumulate in the body...low levels of dopamine.
microcephaly
a disorder in which the head and brain are abnormally small.
hydrocephaly
a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within brain cavities.
cretinism
stunted growth and mental retardation caused by an insufficient supply of thyroid hormone.
Down Syndrome
a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome; results in mental retardation.
fragile-X syndrome
a genetic form of mental retardation caused by a defect in the X chromosome.
speed of processing
the speed with which a person can mentally process information
multiple intelligences
Howard Gardner's theory that there are several specialized types of intellectual ability.
triarchic theory
Robert Sternberg's theory that there are 3 types of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical.
g factor
generalized intelligence... some have it, some don't, some have more than others.
culture-fair test
a test designed to minimize the importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than others.