41 terms

# chapter 4, states of matter

#### Terms in this set (...)

matter
is anything that takes up space and has mass
a solid
is matter with a definite shape and volume
the particles that make up all types of matter are
in constant motion (even a solid's particles are vibrating in place)
three states of matter
solids. liquids, and gas
a fourth state of matter
plasma, which is not commonly found on Earth, is found in stars, lightning and neon lights, occurs at extremely high temperatures
crystalline solids
a solid where its particles are arranged in a repeating, three-dimensional pattern
sugar, sand and snow
examples of crystalline solids
amorphous solids
a solid where its large particles are found in a random arrangement, not in a repeating pattern
rubber, plastic, and glass
examples of amorphous solids
liquid
is matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape
visocity
describes a liquid's resistance to flow
for many liquids, as liquids become colder
the viscosity increases
surface tension
are the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid
gas
is matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
gas particles
move at high speeds in all directions
vapor
is matter that exists in the gas state but is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature
thermal energy
is the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a sample of matter
temperature
is the average kinetic energy of the individual particles
heat
is the movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
specific heat of a substance
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius
melting
the change from a solid state to a liquid state
the melting and freezing point of water
0 degree Celsuis or 32 degrees Farenheit
when amorphous solids, such as glass, melt
they get softer and softer
freezing
the change from a liquid state to a solid state
during freezing, crystalline particles
slow down and come closer together, it loses thermal energy
during melting, crystalline particles
speed up and move further apart, it absorbs thermal energy
vaporization
the change from a liquid to a gas, the opposite of condensation
boiling
is vaporization that takes place below the surface of a liquid
evaporation
is vaporization that takes place at the surface of a liquid
condensation
a process when particles cool and slow down enough for thier attractions to bring them together, creating droplets, the opposite of vaporization
sublimation
the change from a solid state to a gas state, for example, dry ice (solid carbon dioxide)
pressure
is equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted, force divided by area
atmospheric pressure
as altitude increases, atmospheric pressure decreases
gas pressure increases
when the volume decreases or the temperature increases
buoyant force
an upward force on an object immersed in a fluid
Archimedes' principle
buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
density
is mass divided by volume
100 degrees Celsius
the boiling point of water
temperature stays the same
during a change in state of matter
two processes in state of matter where a substance loses thermal energy
condensing and freezing
two processes in state of matter where a substance absorbs thermal energy
melting and vaporizing
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