68 terms

Ch. 3 vocab bio

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Biosphere
Consists of all life on earth and all parts of the earth in which life exists, including, land, water, and the atmosphere.
Ecology
The scientific truth of interactions among organisms and between organism and their physical environment.
Species
A group of similar animals organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Population
Is a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
Community
An assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
Ecosystem
All the organisms that live in a place together with their physical environment.
Biome
Group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Biosphere
The entire planet, with all it's organisms and physical environments.
Biotic factors
Are any living part of the environment which an organism might interact, including animals, plants, mushrooms, and bacteria
Abiotic factors
Are any non-living part of the environment such as heat, sunlight, precipitation, humidity, wind, or water currents.
Primary producer
The first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms.
Autotrophs
Captures energy from the sunlight or chemicals to sustain themselves
Photosynthesis
The capture of light energy for use to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as starches and sugars, is a common primary producer method. Both plants and animals and specific bacteria use this method for energy.
Chemosynthesis
A process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates which serve as energy for the organism.
Carnivores
Kill and eat other animals
Herbivores
Obtain energy and nutrients from eating plant leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits.
Scavengers
Are animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of other causes.
Omnivores
Are animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that usually include both plants and animals.
Decomposers
Chemically break down organic matter
Detrivores
Feed on detritus particles and commonly digest Decomposers that live on detritus particles
Food Chain
Series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Food web
Is a network of feeding interactions; this is useful when showing how animals that eat more than one type of food survive and spread energy.
Trophic level
Each step in a food chain or food web
Ecological pyramids
Show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web.
Biomass
The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level; a pyramid of this illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Matter
Does not move through the biosphere he way energy does. In fact, energy is not received from the universe but rather conserved; recycled within and between ecosystems
Biochemical cycles
Are closed loops in the biosphere that pass elements from one organisms to Another
Biological process
Consist of all activities performed by living organisms
Geological process
Include volcanic eruptions, breakdown of rock and formation of rock, and major movements on the surface of earth.
Chemical and physical process
Include formation of clouds and precipitation and even lightning.
Human activity
Includes agricultural processes, fossil fuel burning, and burning of forests.
The water cycle
Water continuously moves between the oceans, the atmosphere, and land-sometimes outside living organisms and sometimes inside them.
Transpiration
Ground water is taken up by plant roots than, through this process, it is released to the atmosphere.
Condensation
Water from ocean and lakes evaporates and then condenses to form clouds
Precipitation
Water fall to the surface as this, surface runoff leads through rivers to lakes and oceans. Some water seeps into the ground and becomes ground water.
Nutrients
Are chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life. Every organism needs this to build tissue and carry out life functions.
Carbon
Moves through the biosphere as carbon dioxide is continuously exchanged.
Nitrogen fixation
Process of converting Nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use
Denitrification
Occurs when nitrates are converted into nitrogen gas
Phosphorus cycle
The cycle that very little enters the atmosphere in significant amounts but rather stays on land in form of rock and soil minerals.
Nutrient whose supply limits productivity.
Limiting nutrient
Interdependence
Is found in the biosphere because each organism DEPENDS on another to survive
How organisms relate to each other and their environment
Ecology focuses on...
Competition for food
An example of a biotic factor
Biosphere
When biologists refer to ecology on a global scale, they use the term...
Modeling
What methods to ecologists rely primarily upon when studying ecological events occurring at a global scale over long periods of time?
A corn in a field
An example of a producer is an:
Photosynthesis
The most common primary producers harness energy through...
Chemosynthesis
When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates, the process is called...
Consumers
Organisms that cannot harness their own energy are called...
Food chain
The one-way movement of energy through an ecosystem is best described...
Decomposers and detrivores
Which type of organisms recycle nutrients in a food web?
Many animals eat more than one kind of food
Why is a food web a better model than a food chain for showing feeding relationships?
Food web
A set of complex feeding relationships in which a single organism might be both a primary producer and secondary consumer is best shown using a
Ecological pyramid
Illustrates trophic levels in an ecosystem
Biochemical cycle
Closed loop that describes how elements pass through parts of the biosphere
Biological, geological, and chemical
Biochemical cycles involve cycling matter through....
Transpiration
Water can enter the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants in the process of ...
Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen.
& not- phosphorus
Name three nutrients that is found in large quantities in the atmosphere..& name one that is not...
Carbon
What is the key building block of living tissue and ecosystem?
Biomass pyramid
The total amount of living tissue at each trophic level in an ecosystem can be shown in a...
Primary producers
Use energy they take in from the environment to convert inorganic molecules into complex organic molecules...
Eating organisms that are living or we're once living
Consumers get their energy from...
Bio geochemical cycles
Nutrients move through an ecosystem in...
Matter is recycled, biogeochemical cycles transform and reuse molecules, water and nutrients pass between organisms and the environment
Name three facts about matter in the biosphere
Sunlight and chemical energy
Which source of energy for earths living things?
Algae
Ex. Of a primary producer
A combination of biological, geological, and chemical processes
Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, moves carbon through the carbon cycle. Which other processes also participate in the carbon cycle?