Consists of all life on earth and all parts of the earth in which life exists, including, land, water, and the atmosphere.
The scientific truth of interactions among organisms and between organism and their physical environment.
A group of similar animals organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Is a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
An assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
All the organisms that live in a place together with their physical environment.
Group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
The entire planet, with all it's organisms and physical environments.
Are any living part of the environment which an organism might interact, including animals, plants, mushrooms, and bacteria
Are any non-living part of the environment such as heat, sunlight, precipitation, humidity, wind, or water currents.
The first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms.
Captures energy from the sunlight or chemicals to sustain themselves
The capture of light energy for use to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as starches and sugars, is a common primary producer method. Both plants and animals and specific bacteria use this method for energy.
A process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates which serve as energy for the organism.
Kill and eat other animals
Obtain energy and nutrients from eating plant leaves, roots, seeds, or fruits.
Are animals that consume the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of other causes.
Are animals whose diets naturally include a variety of different foods that usually include both plants and animals.
Chemically break down organic matter
Feed on detritus particles and commonly digest Decomposers that live on detritus particles
Series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Is a network of feeding interactions; this is useful when showing how animals that eat more than one type of food survive and spread energy.
Each step in a food chain or food web
Show the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or food web.
The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level; a pyramid of this illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
Does not move through the biosphere he way energy does. In fact, energy is not received from the universe but rather conserved; recycled within and between ecosystems
Are closed loops in the biosphere that pass elements from one organisms to Another
Consist of all activities performed by living organisms
Include volcanic eruptions, breakdown of rock and formation of rock, and major movements on the surface of earth.
Chemical and physical process
Include formation of clouds and precipitation and even lightning.
Includes agricultural processes, fossil fuel burning, and burning of forests.
The water cycle
Water continuously moves between the oceans, the atmosphere, and land-sometimes outside living organisms and sometimes inside them.
Ground water is taken up by plant roots than, through this process, it is released to the atmosphere.
Water from ocean and lakes evaporates and then condenses to form clouds
Water fall to the surface as this, surface runoff leads through rivers to lakes and oceans. Some water seeps into the ground and becomes ground water.
Are chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life. Every organism needs this to build tissue and carry out life functions.
Moves through the biosphere as carbon dioxide is continuously exchanged.
Process of converting Nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb and use
Occurs when nitrates are converted into nitrogen gas
The cycle that very little enters the atmosphere in significant amounts but rather stays on land in form of rock and soil minerals.
Nutrient whose supply limits productivity.
Is found in the biosphere because each organism DEPENDS on another to survive
How organisms relate to each other and their environment
Ecology focuses on...
Competition for food
An example of a biotic factor
When biologists refer to ecology on a global scale, they use the term...
What methods to ecologists rely primarily upon when studying ecological events occurring at a global scale over long periods of time?
A corn in a field
An example of a producer is an:
The most common primary producers harness energy through...
When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates, the process is called...
Organisms that cannot harness their own energy are called...
The one-way movement of energy through an ecosystem is best described...
Decomposers and detrivores
Which type of organisms recycle nutrients in a food web?
Many animals eat more than one kind of food
Why is a food web a better model than a food chain for showing feeding relationships?
A set of complex feeding relationships in which a single organism might be both a primary producer and secondary consumer is best shown using a
Illustrates trophic levels in an ecosystem
Closed loop that describes how elements pass through parts of the biosphere