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Unit 1: Biochemistry Test Review
this study set has the important terms from all 10 videos that we watched₇
Terms in this set (151)
negatively charged particle that orbits around the nucleus of an atom (e⁻)
positively charged particle that is located in the nucleus along with the neutrons (p⁺)
located in the nucleus, have no charge (symbol is an "n" with a o and a diagonal cross through it at the top)
6 most important elements for biologists
C.H.O.N.P.S. [Carbon (6)-Hydrogen (1)-Oxygen (8)-Nitrogen (7)-Phosphorous (15)-Sulfur (16)]
Which of the 6 most important elements for biologists is distantly located compared to the other 5?
type of atom
What are the three units that make up an atom?
electrons, protons, neutrons
What color represents oxygen (in molymod, too)?
What color represents carbon (in molymod, too)?
What color represents hydrogen (in molymod, too)?
What color represents sulfur (in molymod, too)?
What color represents nitrogen (in molymod, too)?
What is the most important element in biochemistry?
What is the atomic number of Carbon?
Up to how many bonds can carbon form?
Why is all life on earth carbon-based?
Carbon can form long chains with itself over and over again.
What percent of the weight in living organisms is carbon?
20% (the carbon we breathe was once part of the carbon dioxide floating in the air)
How abundant is the element carbon in the universe, compared to others (ex: 1st, 2nd, etc.)?
4th most abundant
Why did life evolve with carbon as the base?
Carbon is everywhere thus life has evolved to use the carbon as its base.
What is the atomic number of hydrogen?
Why is hydrogen gas trying to be used for, but what is the danger of doing so?
Hydrogen is trying to be used as fuel in cars; however, this could be dangerous because hydrogen gas is extremely explosive.
How abundant is the element hydrogen in the universe, compared to others (ex: 1st, 2nd, etc.)?
most abundant (1st)
Up to how many bonds can hydrogen form?
What percent of the weight in living organisms is hydrogen?
10% (in humans, it is mostly located in the water, fat, and protein)
What is the atomic number of oxygen?
Up to how many bonds can oxygen form?
2 bonds (for example H₂O, two hydrogens are bonded to one oxygen)
What does oxygen LOVE?
electrons (they will often try to steal/pull electrons from the other atoms)
What percent of the weight in living organisms is oxygen?
How abundant is the element oxygen in the universe, compared to others (ex: 1st, 2nd, etc.)?
3rd most abundant
when atoms share or swap electrons to form molecules and compounds
What are the three phases in matter?
liquid, solid, gas
What phases of matter does water exist as?
liquid, solid, gas (because the earth at a perfect distance from the sun, that allow water to be in all three phases)
Water's chemical formula
What type of bond is formed between the oxygen and both hydrogen in water?
polar covalent bond (which means electrons are shared between both atoms, so electrons orbit around both nuclei, not for equal amount time though which is why water is polar)
curve formed by water in a graduated cylinder, due to adhesion
What is the sequence of specific propertes in water?
unevenly distributed electrons→polarity→hydrogen bonding→surface tension→high specific heat
What does it mean for a bond to be covalent?
the atoms are shared between the atoms
Why is water polar?
unevenly distributed electrons (since Oxygen LOVES electron, the shared electrons tend to spend more time around the Oxygen atom rather than the hydrogen atoms, causing the hydrogen molecules to have a slight positive charge, and the oxygen to have a slight negative charge)
something with opposite sides (north pole/south pole, poles in a magnet)
What interaction does polarity cause in water in water molecules?
attraction (not chemical bond) that occurs between water molecules because water likes itself so much, so hydrogen atomes and oxygen atoms of different water molecules get attracted to each other
Why is hydrogen bonding not a chemical bond?
hydrogen bonding is not a chemical bond because the bonds can easily be broken/disrupted by heating/cooling the moecule
When do hydrogen bonds occur?
When hydrogen is bonded to oxygen or nitrogen (because oxygen and nitrogen LOVE electrons)
surface tension (property)
caused by hydrogen bonds, molecules of water are so attracted to each other that it forms like a chemical skin (allows light creatures to walk over water, why water forms a bubble on a penny)
when water (or any substance) is really attracted to itself
when water is attracted to something ese
high specific heat
amount of energy that substance can absorb before changing temperature (heat of a substance needed to change its temperature, for water it is reall high, 100°C, when water boils)
Why is the climate on Earth not scorching/boiling hot?
Because of high specific heat, oceans absorb much of the heat energyfrom the sun which helps regulate the climate of the Earth (otherwise, the climate would be extremely hot)
"water-loving" (any polar substance is water-loving, will mix with water)
"water-fearing" (any non-polar substance fears water, won't mix with water, for example: oil)
What is a single functional unit in biology?
A cell (few macromolecules put together, gets the functionality of a cell)
How are elements a similarity between macromolecules?
All made up of some combination of C.H.O.N.P.S. (not necessarily all, but some combination of a few, like in carbohydrates just has C.H.O.)
How is overall structure a similarity between macromolecules?
All molecules are made of some combination of C.H.O.N.P.S.
a single building block (unit) of that makes a polymer (or dimer)
more than two monomers put together
two monomers put together
monomer of polysaccaharides
monomer of lipids/fats/membranes
monomer of proteins
monomer of nucleic acids
What is the common name for sucrose
How is the formation a similarity between macromolecules?
all formed via dehydration synthesis
when bonding two monomers to form a dimer/polymer, a molecule of water is removed to form the bond between the two molecules
How is the digestion a similarity between macrmolecules?
all split via hydrolysis reaction
("water-splitting") when splitting a dimer (polymer) into two monomer, a molecule of water is split between both monomers
What is the 1st class of macromolecules?
Where does the term carbohydrate come from?
What are three of the six most important elements in carbohydrates?
C.H.O. (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen)
What is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate?
1:2:1 (example: C₃H₆O₃)
What are three things carbohydrates are mainly used for?
energy source, energy storage, structure (we consume lots of carbohydrates for energy, carbohydrates are an energy source for all animals, plants, and bacteria)
What do plants use carbohydrates for?
What is the structural carbohydrate in a plant?
What happens if a human has too much carbohydrates in his/her bloodstream?
The liver will take and store it as a long chain of carbohydrates.
What are two forms carbohydrates can be found as?
ring and straight form
What is another name, other than sugar, for a monomer of a carbohydrate?
What is an example of a monosaccharide (starts with a g)?
What is an example of a disaccharide (starts with an s)?
What is an example of a polysaccharide (starts with a c)?
What is the backbone that all carbohydrates have?
What suffix do all carbohydrate names end in?
What are the monomers that make up the polymer starch?
Where is starch only found?
only found in plants
What is starch used for?
long-term energy storage in plants
What is the process of making starch (how does it start)?
When plants go through photosynthesis and make sugars, they store the excess sugars as starch (usually).
How is a potato composed of mainly starch?
A potato plant makes a lot of excess sugar because it is exposed to a lot of sun in the ground, so it performs a lot of photosynthesis, the excess sugar is then converted into starch.
Do humans make starch?
Humans do not make starch, but we can eat it and we like it.
What is the energy-storage polysaccharide in animals?
Where is glycogen often found in the body?
in muscle cells
What organ make the glycogen-making process happen?
How/when is glycogen made?
When lots of sugars are consumed, humans/animals store the excess energy as glycogen (before turning it into lipids, when there are more sugars)
How is cellulose a structural carbohydrate?
used in cell walls of plants (like spinach, other greens)
Can humans digest cellulose?
no (just the way cellulose molecules are made, that our enzymes can't break it down)
What is cellulose used for in humans?
it's like a "gut-brush" it cleans out the digestive system and intestines
Why is cellulose really important to eat?
Cellulose is fiber (but we can't just eat that, cause we can't break it down and get energy from it)
"one unit sugar"
"two units sugar"
"more than two units sugar"
How do cows and other grass-eating animals get energy from eating mainly just grass?
These animals have a special organ called a rumen (rumen has certain bacteria in it that can break down the grass so the animals can get energy from the grass as a result)
What is macromolecule group #2?
lipids (fats, membranes)
What are the three types of lipids?
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids
What is the function of a triglyceride?
long-term energy storage, have lots of energy (good for you, but not too much)
What is an example of a triglyceride?
oil (cheese milk, butter, etc.)
What is the function of a phospholipid?
structural components of all living things
Where in a cell are phospholipids located?
in the cell membrane (all membranes made of phospholipids, gives specific characteristics to the cell, creates a barrier which keeps necessary part in a cell and keeps unnecessary parts out of the cell)
What is the function of steroid?
(chemical) messengers, they communicate with various parts of the body (brain knows what's going on with the rest of the body through steroids)
Why are fatty acids not necessarily monomers but more "building blocks"?
fatty acids are not found in long chains like monosaccharides (in a carbohydrate)
What group is at the end of the structure of a lipid?
carboxyl group (COOH)
What is the polarity/nonpolarity in a phospholipid?
carboxyl group is polar, but carbon chain is nonpolar
no double bonds, bonds are complete with hydrogen atoms
at least one double bond (between carbon, this causes the structure to be curved because the carbon molecules are so close together)
What are the structural components for a triglyceride?
three fatty acid chains and a glycerin molecule at the end
What are the uses of triglycerides?
long-term energy storage in animals (and some plants), insulation, cushion/protection (in bones, joints, etc.)
has strong nonpolar and polar regions
What is structural difference that can easily distinguish a phospholipid?
two nonpolar tails
What happens when a phospholipid interacts with water?
Because it is amphipathic, the polar part mixes with water, forming a nonpolar boundary (soap is amphipathic)
What is the structural difference in steroids that distinguish them from other lipids?
have 4 fused carbon rings
Why does one gram of a triglyceride have more energy than one gram of a carbohydrate?
the triglyceride has more carbon to carbon bonds which gives it more energy
What is macromolecules group #3?
What is the structure of a protein?
unbranched chain of amino acids
How are amino acids linked together?
through peptide bonds (which occurs during dehydration reaction)
What is the byproduct of forming a dipeptide?
small chain of proteins
large chain or proteins
What suffix (sound) do all proteins end in?
What are the thee components of all proteins?
amino group, carboxyl group, alpha carbon
What is the purpose of the functional group?
gives the amino acid very specific properties (ex: acidity, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, etc.)
Does a peptide bond occur with/without a dehydration reaction?
during a dehydration reaction
Where does a peptide bond form?
between the C of the carboxyl group and the N of the amino group ( OH of the carboxyl group and the H of the amino group are removed to form water)
How many amino acids are in every protein of the human body?
20 amino acids
What are the 4 levels of protein structure?
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
What is the primary structure?
order of amino acids (very basic, DNA contains information on how to order the amino acids)
What is the secondary structure?
local hydrogen bonding between amino acids (1st phase of interaction)
What are three different types of interactions that occur in proteins?
Hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic (polar molecules cluster in one area), hydrophobic (nonpolar molecules will cluster together in one area)
What is the tertiary structure?
distant (and local) hydrogen bonding between amino acids (distant bonding cause shape to be 3D)
What protein structure stage do not all proteins go to?
What is the quaternary structure?
multiple proteins come together to form a large polypeptide (real complex protein)
What is an example of a quaternary structure protein in our body?
How many polypeptide chains does hemoglobin have?
What type of protein is hemoglobin?
transport (oxygen molecules stick to hemes on the hemoglobin, and the hemoglobin are on the surface of the red blood cells)
Nearly how many proteins are in the human body?
What type of a macromolecule is an enzyme?
What are enzymes (two-word name)?
things that make reactions/interactions occur in the biological system
energy needed to begin a reaction
How does an enzyme benefit in a reaction?
lowers the amount activation energy necessary for reaction to happen
What is the lock-and-key method?
the enzyme-substrate interaction (a metaphor that explains how substrate perfectly fits the substrate and unlocks it, or puts it together just like how a key and lock fit perfectly when they fit together)
thing being worked on
What are four ways that enzyme's rate of reaction can be affected?
increasing optimal temperature, increasing optimal pH, adding more enzyme, adding more substrate
when an enzyme reaches its optimal point (temperature, pH) and hydrogen bonds are disrupted cause the shape of the enzyme to be distorted so it cannot fit its substrate anymore, causing the enzyme not to work.
how something works
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