Fungi are heterotrophs - they cannot make their own food
Unlike animals fungi do not ingest (eat) their food
Absorbs nutrients from the environment
They do this by secreting enzymes
The most common fungal body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells called yeasts.
Single Celled Fungi
Relatively few species of fungi grow as these
Tiny filaments that form bodies of fungi
Consist of tubular cell walls surrounding the cytoplasm of the cells
Unlike plant cell walls, fungal cell walls are strengthened by this.
An interwoven mass formed by fungal hyphae
In most fungi, the hyphae are divided into cells by cross walls, known as this.
These generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell.
Some fungi lack this.
Fungi lacking Septa.
Consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass having hundreds or thousands of nuclei
Results from repeated division of nuclei without cytokinesis
Fungi use to extract nutrients from - or exchange nutrients with - their hosts
Mutually beneficial relationships between fungi with Haustoria and plants are called this.
Mycorrhizae fungi that form sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi
Mycorrhizae fungi that extend their branching hyphae through the cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination (pushing inward) of the root cell membrane
Reproduction in Fungi
Both sexually and asexually
The nuclei of fungal hyphae and the spores of most fungal species are haploid, although many fungi have transient diploid stages that form during sexual life cycles. Generally ____________ occurs when two mycelia release sexual signaling molecules called pheromones.
A sexual signaling molecule secreted from hyphae.
Begins sexual reproduction
The union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycelia
In most fungi, the haploid nuclei contributed by each parent do not fuse right away. Instead parts of the fused mycelium contain coexisting, genetically different nuclei.
When haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell, one from each parent.
As many as 20,000 fungal species are known to reproduce this way
Many fungi reproduce asexually by growing as filamentous fungi that produce (haploid) spores by mitosis; such species are known informally as _________ if they form visible mycelia.
Sometimes found in kitches, fruit, bread, and other foods
Term for many yeasts and filamentous fungi which have no known sexual stage.
Mycologists have given such fungi this name.
A clade formed by fungi, the animals, and their protistan relatives.
The name of this clade refers to the posterior location of the flagellum in these organisms
Globular fruiting body forms multicellular, branched hyphae.
Other species can be single-celled.
Thought to be one of the earliest fungal groups to diverge from other fungi
The hyphae of some ______________ grow rapidly into foods such as fruits and bread.
The fungi may act as decomposers (if the food is not alive) or parasites; other species live as neutral (commensal) symbionts.
(Arbuscular mychorrhizal fungi)
Great ecological importance.
Many plants form mychorrhizal associations with these fungi.
Example: Aleuria aurantia
Also called sac fungi
Members of this diverse group are common to many marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats.
Example: Amanita muscaria (a type of mushroom)
Often important as decomposers and ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Are unusual in having a long-lived, dikaryotic mycelium.
________________ will absorb organic material, including the cellulose and lignin of plant cell walls.
Symbiotic fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts without causing harm.
All plant species studied to date appear to harbor symbiotic ________.
Symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae.
Small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae
As might be expected of "dual organisms," sexual reproduction as a symbiotic unit also occurs commonly, either by fragmentation of the parental lichen or by the formation of ________.
The general term for a fungal infection.
Practical Use of Fungi
Antibiotics, Foods, Alcohol, Research in molecular biology and biotechnology.
All Fungi share which of the following characteristics? A. Symbiotic B. Heterotrophic C. Flagellated D. Pathogenic E. Act as decomposers
C. Flagellated Spores
Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution? A. The absence of chitin within the cell wall B. Coenocytic hyphae C. Flagellated spores D. Formation of resistant zygosporangia E. Parasitic lifestyle
Which of the following cells or structures are associated with asexual reproduction in fungi? A. Ascospores B. Basidiospores C. Zygosporangia D. Conidiophores E. Ascocarps
E. An extensives surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.
The adaptive advantage associated with the filamentous nature of fungal mycelia is primarily related to A. the ability to form hausoria and parasitize other organisms. B. avoiding sexual reproduction until the environment changes. C. the potential to inhabit almost all terrestrial habitats. D. the increased probability of contact between different mating types. E. an extensive surface area well suited for invasive growth and absorptive nutrition.
B. A green alga
The photosynthetic symbiont of a lichen is often A. A moss B. A green alga C. A brown alga D. An ascomycete E. A small vascular plant
Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi? A. Animals B. Vascular plants C. Mosses D. Brown algae E. Slime molds