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Mutagenesis assay (a measure of mutagenic ability) that involves specially engineered strains of bacteria.
removal of a sample of tissue, which is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells
soft, spongy tissue in the center of large bones that produces white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
bone marrow aspiration
removal of a samall sample of bone marrow (usually from the hip) through a needle for examination under a microscope to see whether cancer cells are present
term for a group of more than 100 diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissuews and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphocytic system to other parts of the body
sequence of events by which cells enlarge and divide. Includes stages typically named G1, S, G2, and M
procedure that uses a flexible fiber optic endoscope to examine the internal surface of teh colon along its entire length
female hormone produced by the ovary. Responsible for secondary sex characteristics and cyclic changes in the lining of the uterus and vagina
fecal occult blood test
test to reveal blood hidden in the feces, which may be a sign of colon cancer
member of the herpes family of viruses. One type of herpes virus is sexually transmitted and causes sores on the genitals
viruses that generally cause warts. Some papillomaviruses are sexually transmitted. Some of tese sexually tramsmitted viruses casue wartlike growths on the genitals, and some are thought to cause abnormal changes in cells of the cervix
skin pigment (substance that gives the skin its color) Dark skinned people have more melanin than light skinned people
cancer growth (secondary tumors) that is anatomically separated from the site at which the original cancer developed
to spread from one part of the body to anotehr. When cancer cells matastasize and form secondary tumors, the cells in the metastatic tumor are like those in the original (primary) tumor
change in the way cells function or develop, caused by an inherited genetic defect or an environmental exposure. Such changes may lead to cancer
gene that normally directs cell growth but also can promote or allow the uncontrolled growth of cancer if damaged (mutated) by an environmental exposure to carcinogens or if damaged or missing because of an inherited defect
gene that, when converted to an oncogene by a mutation or other change, can cause a normal cell to become malignant. Normal oncogenes function to control normal cell growth and differentiation
comparison of the risk of developing cancer in persons with a certain type of exposure or characteristic with the risk in persons who do ot have this exposure or characteristic
eye cancer caused by the loss of both copies of the tumor suppressor gene RB; the inherited form typically occurs in childhood because one gene is missing from the time of birth
SPF (sun protection factor)
scale for rating sunscreens. Sunscreens with an SPF of 15 or higher provide the best protection from the sun's harmful rays
doing exams and tests to learn the extent of the cancer, especially whether it has spread from its original site to other parts of the body
abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division. Tumors perform no useful body function. They may be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous)
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