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most of lymph returns to venous circulation by way of the...

left lymphatic duct

nonspecific defences

skin, complement, interfereon, inflammation

plasma cells are responsible for...

production of circulating antibodies

b cells are responsible for...

humoral immunity

suppressor cells act to depress the responses of...

other t and b cells

what must a b lymphocyte bind to to respond to to an antigen?

specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane

common passageways shared by the pharynx?

respiratory and digestive

where are the palatine tonsils?

walls of the oropharynx

trachea tissue

pseudostratified columnar epitheliea

how can the 5 classes of immunoglobulins be classified?

their fixed or constant segment

boyles law:

increase in volume means a decrease in pressure

when diaphragm and external intercostals contract...

the volume of the thorax increases

Dalton's Law:

in a mixture of gases such as air the total P is the sum of the individual pp's of the gases in the mixture

pp O2 in brachial vein

100 mm Hg

pp CO2 in pulmonary vein

40 mm Hg

pneumotaxic center of pons

modifies the rate and depth of breathing

hering breuer reflex

protects lungs from damage due to overinflation

sympathetic stimulation of the smooth muscle layer in the bronchioles causes...



inspiration involving muscular contractions and expiration is passive

elevated H+ ions increases the amount of O2 dischaged by

hemoglobin to peripheral tissues

damage to septal cells would result in...

aveolar collapse

composition of lymph is similar to..

interstitial fluid


large lymphoid nodules located in the walls of the pharynx


largest single collection of lymphod tissue in the adult body

what are plasma cells responsible for?

producing circulating immunoglobulins

t cells develop in...

the thymus

t is to thymus as b is to...

bone marrow derived

nonspecific defenses

phagocytic cells, interferons, physical barriers, histamine, neutrophils, and inflammation

specific defenses depend on...

the activities of lymphcytes

specific defenses

memory tolerance versatility and specificity

stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes are...

concentrated in the red bone marrow

fever is...

maintainence of body temp greater than 37.2 celcius and 99 fahrenheit

induced active

immunity that results from vaccination against the flu

specific immunity

defense of the body agains a particular pathogen

innate immunity

genetically presented at birth

naturally aquired immunity

results from exposure to an antigen in the enviornment

naturally aquired passive

results from antibodies that pass from mother to fetus

cytotoxic t cells

directly responsible for cellular immunity
-can specifically identitify and directly kill disease cells and virus infected cells

b cells

responsible for humoral immunity

passive immunization

exposing a rabbit to a viral antigen so it makes antibodies which we purify and inject into a human with the same viral disease

antigen presentation

antigen's are digested, phagocytic APC's enguilf pathogens, antigen fragments appear on the apc's surface

helper t cells

secretes lymphokines that regulate immunity


presenting cells in immunity activate t cells, display antigen fragments, and process antigens

functions of respiratory system

exchange gases, protect against enviormental hazards, and ventilate air spaces

what traps particulate matter in inhaled air?

epithelial mucous

lower respiratory system

bronchi, aveoli, trachea, and larynx


create turbulence in air to trap particulate matter

external nares

opening to nostril

common pathway between respiratory and digestive


where do auditory tubes open to?


what divides the nasopharynx from the rest of the pharynx?

soft palate


connects to oral cavity


most superior


ends at esophogus

what moves to change pitch of voice?

arytenoid cartilage

adams apple

thyroid cartilage (largest)


opening to larynx

where are vocal cords located?


cricoid cartilage

ring shaped cartilage inferior to the thyroid cartilage

arytinoid cartilages

articulate with the superior border of the cricoid cartilages

vocal folds

pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that functions in sound production


airway that connects larynx to broncheal tree

where is choking most common?

right primary bronchus

effects of decreased surfactant

respiratory distress syndrome, avelolar collapse, and increased inspiratory effort

repiratory membrane of glas exchange surfaces

simple squamous epithelium

difference in pp of co2 between venous and arteriol blood is about

5 mm Hg

most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while...

it is bound to hb

most co2 is transported in the blood by...

bicarbonate ions

stimulation of the apneustic center

prolonged inspirations

if the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla is destroyed...

the person would stop breathing

functions of lymphatic system

role in immunity and return fluid from tissues to circulation


process of exchange at capillaries

fluid exits capillaries at,,

arteriole end because of bp

fluid enters capillaries at...

venule end bc of osmotic p

lymph movement

muscular compression and repiratory pump

functions of lymph nodes

add lymphocytes to lymph and purify and cleanse lymph

lymphatic ducts empty lymph in between the...

internal jugular and subclavian vein

cisterna chyli

major lymphatic vessel in abdomen, much of lymph from digestive tract and recieves lymph from r and l side below diaphragm


large lymph nodes embedded in a mucous membrane that cleanse lymph and add lymphocytes


largest lymphatic organ attached to stomach by a ligamen

functions of spleen

blood processing, stores iron, and lymphocytes


posterior to sternum, produced hormones that stimulate lymphocyte maturation


any substance that stimulates an immune response

where are parts of the antigens displayed?


nonspecific defenses

do not discriminate between antigens. response is always the same.

t cellls


b cells



lymphocyte formation in fetal bone marrow

lymphoid cells

one population goes to the thymus than to the peripheral tissues and the other remains in the bone marrow where is develops an immunological competence than migrates to the peripheral tissues

2 arms of the immune system

cell mediate immunity and antibody mediated immuniy

cell mediated immunity

activates t cells and phagocytes and direcly physically and chemically attack the antigen

antibody mediated immunity

(humoral immunity)
b cells attack by cirulating the antibodies

3 types of t cells

killer ts, helper ts, supressor t cells

t cells can only recognize antigens when...

they are bound to an apc's plasma membrane

t cell activation

-pathogen is phagocytized by apc
-lysosome fuses with vesicle containing pathogen and digests it
-antigen fragments are displayed by class 2 MHC proteins on plasma membrane
-fragments are bound to class 2 MHC proteins and the endoplasmic reticulum produced class 2 mhc proteins

what do helper t's do?

release cytokines (chemicals)
they grow and divide, activate killer t's, and activate b cells

killer t's recognize target antigens on...

mhc class 1 proteins

how killer t's destory infeced cells

they bind to the infected cell, release perforin, perforin pokes holes so they leak and are destroyed

b cells and humoral immunity are effective against...

free, intact, antigens

b cells divide and differentiate into

plasma cells- produce antibodies
memory cells- remember invadors



variable region

specific for each antigen, binding site

constant region

base, 5 kinds: iga, igd, ig, igg, ige

how do antibodies work?

neutralize antigen, cause antigen to precipitate, and mark them for phagocytosis


opening between oral cavity and oropharynx

2 tiny cartilages that lie in the tissues of the larynx


functions of the larynx

prevents food from entering laynx, sound production

ventricular fold

false vocal cords, prevent foreign material from entering glottis

vocal fold

true vocal cords, involved in sound production

larynx moves upward while...


sound production:

laryngeal muscles contract, pull on ligaments attached to vocal cords, strech vocal cords, vocal cords vibrate, sound waves


windpipe, 1 in in diameter, 4.5 in long, lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelia, trachialus muscle

inervated by sympathetic nervous system


type 1 avelous

simple squamous epithelium

type 2 avelous

septal cells produce surfactant (phospholipid and protein) decrease surface tension of avelous

forced breathing

involves additional muscles: internal intercostals and abdominal muscles


quiet breathing


total atm p due to all gases x % of atm p composed of gas a

room air

po2= 160 mm hg
pco2= .3 mm hg

pulmonary capillary

arteriole: po2= 40 pco2= 45
venule: po2= 100 pco2= 40

systemic capillary

arteriole: po2= 100 pco2= 40
venule: po2= 40 pco2= 45
interstital fluid: po2= 40 pco2= 45

98.5% o2

binds to hemoglobin

70% of co2


hb+ o2


co2+ hb


po2 determines

the direction of the rxn

bohr effect

decrease in blood ph

shifts curve to righ

decrease in ph increase in co2 and increase in temp

benefits of shifted curve?

less percent saturation at any given po2 more o2 is unloaded from hb to tissues

co2-- carbonic acid

co2 from body cells in peripheral tissues diffuse through the capillary wall and into the rbc where water is added to it and catabolized by carbonic anhydrase that turns ino carbonic acid which dissociated into h+ and bicarbonate (hco3) the bicarbonate leanes the cell and is replaced by a chloride the h+ binds to a hb and acts as a buffer to preven ph change this preserves electroneutrality


bicarbonate enters the rbc and chloride exits, bicarbonate is added to h+ which had resuloted from H+ and hb. those two come together to form h2co3, from this co2 leaves the cell crosses the capillary wall and goes into the aveoli of the lungs

key respiratory center

respiratory rhythmicity area, controls basic rhythm

dorsal respiratory group

controls eupnea

ventral respiration group

controls hypernea

pneumotaxic center

decreases inspiration and increases expiration

apneustic center

increases inspiration and decreases expiration


high plasma co2

high co2 stimulates

peripheral chemoreceptors (aortic arch and carotid sinus)
central chemoreceptors (medulla)


decreased co2 decreased drg
decreased respiration rate and depth


low blood ph

herring brewer reflex

detect air volume: refelex: respiration

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