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what must a b lymphocyte bind to to respond to to an antigen?
specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane
in a mixture of gases such as air the total P is the sum of the individual pp's of the gases in the mixture
phagocytic cells, interferons, physical barriers, histamine, neutrophils, and inflammation
cytotoxic t cells
directly responsible for cellular immunity
-can specifically identitify and directly kill disease cells and virus infected cells
exposing a rabbit to a viral antigen so it makes antibodies which we purify and inject into a human with the same viral disease
antigen's are digested, phagocytic APC's enguilf pathogens, antigen fragments appear on the apc's surface
presenting cells in immunity activate t cells, display antigen fragments, and process antigens
functions of respiratory system
exchange gases, protect against enviormental hazards, and ventilate air spaces
effects of decreased surfactant
respiratory distress syndrome, avelolar collapse, and increased inspiratory effort
major lymphatic vessel in abdomen, much of lymph from digestive tract and recieves lymph from r and l side below diaphragm
one population goes to the thymus than to the peripheral tissues and the other remains in the bone marrow where is develops an immunological competence than migrates to the peripheral tissues
cell mediated immunity
activates t cells and phagocytes and direcly physically and chemically attack the antigen
t cell activation
-pathogen is phagocytized by apc
-lysosome fuses with vesicle containing pathogen and digests it
-antigen fragments are displayed by class 2 MHC proteins on plasma membrane
-fragments are bound to class 2 MHC proteins and the endoplasmic reticulum produced class 2 mhc proteins
what do helper t's do?
release cytokines (chemicals)
they grow and divide, activate killer t's, and activate b cells
how killer t's destory infeced cells
they bind to the infected cell, release perforin, perforin pokes holes so they leak and are destroyed
b cells divide and differentiate into
plasma cells- produce antibodies
memory cells- remember invadors
how do antibodies work?
neutralize antigen, cause antigen to precipitate, and mark them for phagocytosis
laryngeal muscles contract, pull on ligaments attached to vocal cords, strech vocal cords, vocal cords vibrate, sound waves
windpipe, 1 in in diameter, 4.5 in long, lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelia, trachialus muscle
type 2 avelous
septal cells produce surfactant (phospholipid and protein) decrease surface tension of avelous
arteriole: po2= 100 pco2= 40
venule: po2= 40 pco2= 45
interstital fluid: po2= 40 pco2= 45
benefits of shifted curve?
less percent saturation at any given po2 more o2 is unloaded from hb to tissues
co2-- carbonic acid
co2 from body cells in peripheral tissues diffuse through the capillary wall and into the rbc where water is added to it and catabolized by carbonic anhydrase that turns ino carbonic acid which dissociated into h+ and bicarbonate (hco3) the bicarbonate leanes the cell and is replaced by a chloride the h+ binds to a hb and acts as a buffer to preven ph change this preserves electroneutrality
bicarbonate enters the rbc and chloride exits, bicarbonate is added to h+ which had resuloted from H+ and hb. those two come together to form h2co3, from this co2 leaves the cell crosses the capillary wall and goes into the aveoli of the lungs
high co2 stimulates
peripheral chemoreceptors (aortic arch and carotid sinus)
central chemoreceptors (medulla)
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