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91 terms

Sociology

STUDY
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WHAT DO SOCIOLOGISTS CALL TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHO IDENTIFY AND INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER?
SOCIAL GROUP
WHAT IS THE CORRECT SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPT FOR ALL PEOPLE WITH A COMMON STATUS, SUCH AS "COLLEGE STUDENTS"?
CATEGORY
WHAT CONCEPT REFERS TO A TEMPORARY, LOOSELY FORMED COLLECTION OF PEOPLE WHO MAY OR MAY NOT INTERACT?
SECONDARY GROUP
CHARLES COOLEY REFERRED TO A SMALL SOCIAL GROUP WHOSE MEMBERS SHARE PERSONAL AND ENDURING RELATIONSHIPS USING THE CONCEPT
PRIMARY GROUP
WHAT IS EVERY SOCIETY'S MOST IMPORTANT PRIMARY GROUP?
FAMILY
A SECONDARY GROUP IS A SOCIAL GROUP THAT
PURSUES A SPECIFIC GOAL OR ACTIVITY
NAME CONCEPT THAT REFERS TO GROUP LEADERSHIP THAT EMPHASIZES THE COMPLETION OF TASKS
INSTRUMENTAL LEADERSHIP
WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO GROUP LEADERSHIP THAT EMPHASIZES COLLECTIVE WELL-BEING?
EXPRESSIVE LEADERSHIP
WHICH TYPE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE FOCUSES ON INSTRUMENTAL CONCERNS, MAKING DECISIONS, AND ENSURING GROUP MEMBERS OBEY ORDERS?
AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP
WHICH TYPE OF GROUP LEADER SUPPORTS COLLECTIVE DECISION-MAKING ON AN EGALITARIAN BASIS?
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
SOLOMON ASCH'S RESEARCH, IN WHICH SUBJECTS WERE ASKED TO MATCH LINES, SHOWED
MANY SUBJECTS AGREED WITH THE WRONG ANSWERS GIVEN BY OTHERS IN THEIR GROUP
STANLEY MILGRAM'S RESEARCH, IN WHICH SUBJECTS USED A "SHOCK GENERATOR," SHOWED THAT
PEOPLE ARE LIKELY TO FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS NOT ONLY OF LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY FIGURES BUT ALSO OF GROUPS ORDINARY INDIVIDUALS, EVEN IF DOING SO MEANS HARMING ANOTHER PERSONS
WHAT IS GROUPTHINK?
THE TENDENCY OF GROUP MEMBERS TO CONFORM, RESULTING IN A NARROW VIEW OF SOME ISSUE
WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO A SOCIAL GROUP THAT PEOPLE USE AS A POINT OF REFERENCE IN MAKING EVALUATIONS OR DECISIONS
REFERENCE GROUP
WHICH OF CONCEPTS REFER TO A SOCIAL GROUP TOWARD WHICH WE FEEL COMPETITION OR OPPOSITION
OUT-GROUP
WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO A SOCIAL GROUP WITH TWO MEMBERS
DYAD
WHAT IS A TRIAD
A SOCIAL GROUP WITH THREE MEMBERS
DID SIMMEL THINK DYADS WERE BLANK STABLE THAN OTHER TYPES OF GROUPS
MORE
WHICH GROUPS TURN OUTWARD AND WHICH TURN INWARD
A. LARGE GROUPS : INWARD
B. HOMOGENEOUS GROUPS : OUTWARD
C. HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS : INWARD
WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO THE WEAK SOCIAL TIES AMONG PERSONS WHO HAVE LITTLE COMMON IDENTITY AND LITTLE INTERACTION
SOCIAL NETWORK
WHICH OF THE STATEMENTS IS TYPICALLY TRUE OF A SOCIAL NETWORK
NETWORKS ARE "FUZZY" GROUPS CONTAINING PEOPLE WE "KNOW OF" RATHER THAN THOSE WE "KNOW"
LARGE SECONDARY GROUPS ORGANIZED TO ACHIEVE GOALS EFFICIENTLY ARE CALLED
FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS
A MAXIMUM-SECURITY PRISON IS ONE EXAMPLE OF A FORMAL ORGANIZATION THAT IS
COERCIVE ORGANIZATIONS
WHICH TYPE OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION DO PEOPLE TYPICALLY JOIN TO MAKE MONEY
UTILITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS
FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF PARENTS, WHAT TYPE OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION IS A SCHOOL'S PTA?
NORMATIVE ORGANIZATIONS
AN ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL RATIONALLY DESIGNED TO PERFORM TASKS EFFICIENTLY IS A
BUREAUCRACY
WHAT ARE THE TRAITS OF A BUREAUCRACY AS NOTED BY MAX WEBER
SPECIALIZATION, HIERARCHY OF OFFICES, RULES AND REGULATIONS, TECHNICAL COMPETENCE IMPERSONALITY, AND FORMAL, WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS
MAX WEBER ARGUED THAT FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS, WHILE EFFICIENT, HAVE THE ABILITY TO BLANK PEOPLE WITHIN THEM
ALIENATE
THE EMERGENCY ROOM CLERK WHO KEEPS A BLEEDING PATIENT WAITING WHILE FILLING OUT EXTENSIVE PAPERWORK IS A CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF BUREAUCRATIC
INEFFICIENCY
THE TENDENCY OF BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS TO PERPETUATE THEMSELVES--THAT IS, TO KEEP THEMSELVES GOING--IS CALLED
BUREAUCRATIC INERTIA
WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO THE RULE OF THE MANY BY THE FEW
OLIGARCHY
WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM ROSABETH MOSS KANTER'S RESEARCH ABOUT U.S. ORGANIZATIONS
THAT BY EXCLUDING WOMEN AND MINORITIES FROMT HE WORK PLACE IGNORES THE TALENTS OF MORE THAN HALF THE POPULATION
WHAT TRAITS HAVE BEEN DESCRIBED AS A "FEMALE ADVANTAGE"
WOMEN HAVE BETTER COMMUNICATION SKILLS, FLEXIBLE LEADERS, EMPHASIZE THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS OF ALL ORGANIZATIONAL OPERATIONS
WHAT TRAIT DID WILLIAM OUCHI'S INCLUDE IN HIS DESCRIPTION OF FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS IN JAPAN DURING THE 1980S.
HIRED WORKERS IN GROUPS, HIRED WORKERS FOR LIFE, TRAINED WORKERS IN ALL PHASES OF OPERATIONS, "QUALITY CIRCLES", PROVIDED HOME MORTGAGES, SPONSORING RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, SCHEDULING SOCIAL EVENTS
IN GENERAL, U.S. AND JAPANESE FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE DIFFERED BECAUSE
U.S. EMPHASIZES INDIVIDUALISM WHILE THE JAPANESE VALUE COOPERATION
NAME THREE WAYS IN WHICH TODAY'S BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS IN THE U.S. DIFFER FROM THOSE A CENTURY AGO
CREATIVE FREEDOM, COMPETITIVE WORK TEAMS, AND A FLATTER ORGANIZATIONS
WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLES OF MCDONALDIZATION
EFFICIENCY
PREDICTABILITY
UNIFORMITY
CONTROL
WHAT COMES CLOSEST TO THE CORRECT VIEW OF THE ROLE OF BIOLOGY IN CAUSING PEOPLE TO COMMIT CRIMES
BIOLOGICAL THEORY: BIOLOGICAL FACTORS MAY HAVE A REAL BUT SMALL EFFECT IN CAUSING SOME PEOPLE TO COMMIT CRIMES
EMILE DURKHEIM'S BASIC INSIGHT IS THAT DEVIANCE IS
A NECESSARY ELEMENT OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION, SERVING SEVERAL IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS
NAME THE FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE NOTED BY EMILE DURKHEIM
DEVIANCE AFFIRMS CULTURAL VALUES AND NORMS
RESPONDING TO DEVIANCE CLARIFIES MORAL BOUNDARIES
RESPONDING TO DEVIANCE BRINGS PEOPLE TOGETHER
DEVIANCE ENCOURAGES SOCIAL CHANGE
WHAT CONCEPT IS USED IN ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY OF DEVIANCE TO REFER TO THE PROCESS OF SEEKING CONVENTIONAL GOALS BUT REJECTING CONVENTIONAL MEANS TO GET THERE
INNOVATION
IN HIS STRAIN THEORY, ROBERT MERTON WOULD USE WHAT CONCEPT TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE, INCLUDING ALCOHOLICS AND DRUG ADDICTS, WHO "DROP-OUT"
RETREATISM
IN ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY, WHAT CONCEPT CORRECTLY DESCRIBES A PERSON WHO GETS RICH BY COMMITTING FRAUD WHILE WORKING AT A BANK
RITUALISM/INNOVATION
IN HIS STRAIN THEORY, ROBERT MERTON USES WHAT CONCEPT TO DESCRIBE THE BEHAVIOR OF A RADICAL WHO REJECTS CULTURAL GOALS AND MEANS IN FAVOR OF SOME ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM
REBELLION
USING ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY, WHAT CONCEPT CORRECTLY DESCRIBES THE BEHAVIOR OF A LOW-PAID, YET COMPULSIVELY CONFORMING BANK TELLER
CONFORMITY
IN HIS SUBCULTURAL THEORY OF DEVIANCE, WALTER MILLER CLAIMED THAT STREET CRIMINALITY IS MOST COMMON AMONG
LOWER-CLASS YOUTH
THE BASIC IDEA BEHIND LABELING THEORY IS THAT
DEVIANCE AND CONFORMITY RESULT NOT SO MUCH FROM WHAT PEOPLE DO AS FROM HOW OTHERS RESPOND TO THOSE ACTIONS
EDWIN SUTHERLAND'S DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY LINKS DEVIANCE TO
THE AMOUNT OF CONTACT WITH OTHERS WHO ENCOURAGE OR REJECT CONVENTIONAL BEHAVIOR
(LEARNED BEHAVIOR)
TRAVIS HIRSCHI'S CONTROL THEORY SUGGESTS WHAT CATEGORY OF PEOPLE WOULD BE MOST LIKELY TO ENGAGE IN DEVIANCE
PEOPLE'S ANTICIPATING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR BEHAVIOR
ACCORDING TO THE SOCIAL-CONFLICT APPROACH, WHAT A SOCIETY LABELS AS DEVIANT IS BASED MOSTLY ON
POWER, COMPETITION, AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY
ALEXANDER LIAZOS SPEAKS FOR THE SOCIAL-CONFLICT APPROACH WHEN HE STATES THAT
THE PEOPLE WE TEND TO DEFINE AS DEVIANTS-THE ONES WE DISMISS AS "NUTS" AND "SLUTS"- ARE TYPICALLY NOT THOSE WHO ARE BAD OR HARMFUL AS MUCH AS THEY ARE POWERLESS
"SOCIAL STRATIFICATION" IS A CONCEPT THAT REFERS TO
A SYSTEM BY WHICH A SOCIETY RANKS CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN A HIERARCHY
COMPARING A NUMBER OF SOCIETIES IN HISTORY AND AROUND THE WORLD, WE SEE THAT SOCIAL STRATIFICATION MAY INVOLVE DIFFERENCE IN
INEQUALITY, DIALECT AND AGE
IN WHAT SHARE OF THE WORLD'S SOCIETIES DO WE NOT FIND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
IN MOST, POVERTY
A CASTE SYSTEM IS DEFINED AS
A SOCIAL STRATIFICATION BASED ON ASCRIPTION, OR BIRTH
THE CONCEPT "MERITOCRACY" REFERS TO SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
BASED ON PERSONAL MERIT
WHY DO CLASS SYSTEMS RETAIN SOME CASTE-LIKE QUALITIES, RATHER THAN BECOMING COMPLETE MERITOCRACIES
TO PROMOTE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY; BUT AT THE SAME TIME, THEY KEEP CASTE ELEMENT, SUCH AS FAMILY LOYALTY, TO MAINTAIN ORDER AND SOCIAL UNITY
IN ENGLISH HISTORY, THE HEREDITARY NOBILITY OWNED MOST OF
THE LAND
IN ENGLISH HISTORY, THE CONCEPT "PRIMOGENITURE" REFERS TO
REQUIRING THAT ALL PROPERTY PASS TO THE OLDEST SON OR OTHER MALE RELATION
THE CASTE HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN IS STILL EVIDENT TODAY IN THE IMPORTANCE PEOPLE THERE ATTACH TO
ROYALTY
AT THE TOP OF THE SYSTEM OF INEQUALITY IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION WERE THE
HIGH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, SOVIET INTELLIGENTS
IN RECENT DECADES A NEW CLASS HAS EMERGED IN CHINA, WHICH IS THE
MIXTURE BETWEEN OLD POLITICAL HIERARCHY AND A NEW BUSINESS HIERARCHY
ACCORDING TO THE DAVIS-MOORE THESIS THE REASON THERE IS SOCIAL INEQUALITY IS
BECAUSE IT IS BENEFICIAL FOR SOCIETY
DAVIS AND MOORE POINT OUT THAT AN EGALITARIAN SOCIETY COULD EXIST BUT
ONLY ON THE EXTENT THAT PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO LET ANYONE PERFORM ANY JOB
ACCORDING TO DAVIS AND MOORE, INEQUALITY PROMOTES PRODUCTIVITY BY
REWARDING IMPORTANT WORK WITH INCOME, PRESTIGE, POWER, OR LEISURE ENCOURAGES PEOPLE TO DO THESE THINGS AND TO WORK BETTER, LONGER, AND HARDER
FOLLOWING KARL MARX'S ANALYSIS, WE WOULD EXPECT TO FIND ALIENATION AMONG WHICH CATEGORY OF PEOPLE
PROLETARIANS
MARX PREDICTED THE EVENTUAL VICTORY AND DOMINANCE OF WHICH SOCIAL CLASS
THE WORKING MAJORITY
CLASSLESS SYSTEM
ACCORDING TO KARL MARX, DIFFERENCES IN WEALTH AND POWER BETWEEN THE CAPITALISTS AND PROLETARIANS LEADS TO
CLASS CONFLICT
WHILE THE DAVIS AND MOORE THESIS SUGGESTS "TO EACH ACCORDING TO THE IMPORTANCE OF ONE'S WORK," KARL MARX SUPPORTED THE IDEA
THE PROLETARIANS HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE BU THEIR CHAINS. THEY HAVE A WORLD TO WIN
WHY HAS NO SOCIAL REVOLUTION TAKE PLACE IN THE US AS KARL MARX PREDICTED
CAPITALISM IS STILL THRIVING
KARL MARX BELIEVED THAT SOCIALISM WOULD END SOCIAL STRATIFICATION BY ABOLISHING PRIVATE PROPERTY WHAT WAS WEBER'S VIES
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AS INVOLVING THREE DISTINCT DIMENSIONS OF INEQUALITY
ACCORDING TO SIMON KUZNETS, IN WHICH TYPE OF SOCIETY IS SOCIAL STRATIFICATION GREATEST
HIGH-INCOME NATIONS THAT HAVE PASSED THROUGH THE INDUSTRIAL ERA
AGRARIAN
EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT, AS THE US MOVES INTO THE POST-INDUSTRIAL PHASE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IS
INCOME
LOOKING AROUND THE WORLD TODAY, INCOME INEQUALITY IS GREATEST IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REGIONS
LATIN AMERICA AND AFRICA
ACCORDING TO THE US GOVERNMENT THE MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME IN 2006 WAS
58,407
THE HIGHEST-EARNING 20 PERCENT OF ALL US FAMILIES ACCOUNT FOR WHAT PERCENTAGE OF ALL INCOME
48.5 %
IN THE US THE WEALTHIEST 20 PERCENT OF FAMILIES OWN ABOUT HOW MUCH OF THE COUNTRY'S PRIVATELY OWNED WEALTH
85%
THE WEALTHIEST 1 PERCENT OF US FAMILIES CONTROL ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE NATION'S PRIVATELY HELD WEALTH
35%
THE LOWEST-RANKING 40 PERCENT OF US FAMILIES HAS ABOUT
NO WEALTH AT ALL, THEY VIRTUALLY ALL LIVE IN DEBT
AS OF 2006 IN THE US ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF ADULTS OVER THE AGE OF TWENTY-FIVE WERE COLLEGE GRADUATES
28%
ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE RICHEST PEOPLE IN THE US GAINED THEIR FORTUNES MOSTLY FROM INHERITANCE
ONE-THIRD
POPULAR AUTHOR J.K. ROWLING HAS EARNED A FORTUNE WITH HER BOOKS. ROWLING IS A MEMBER OF WHICH SOCIAL CLASS
LOWER-UPPERS
ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE US POPULATION IS OFFICIALLY COUNTED BY THE GOVERNMENT AS POOR
36 MILLION OR 12.3 PERCENT OF POPULATION
PEOPLE OF LOW SOCIAL POSITION ARE MORE LIBERAL ON BLANK ISSUES AND MORE CONSERVATIVE ON BLANK ISSUES
ECONOMIC
SOCIAL
THE INCOME OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE US
62 PERCENT
IN TERMS OF RACE, TWO-THIRDS OF ALL POOR PEOPLE IN THE US ARE
WHITE
THE "FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY" REFERS TO THE FACT THAT, IN THE US
THE TREND OF WOMEN MAKING UP AN INCREASING PROPORTION OF THE POOR
THE ANTHROPOLOGIST OSCAR LEWIS SUGGESTED THE CAUSE OF POVERTY LIES IN
A CULTURE OF POVERTY, A LOWER-CLASS SUBCULTURE THAT CAN DESTROY PEOPLE'S AMBITION TO IMPROVE THEIR LIVES
SOCIOLOGIST WILLIAM JULIUS WILSON SUGGESTS THE CAUSE OF POVERTY LIES IN
THAT SOCIETY IS PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR POVERTY
GOVERNMENT DATA SHOW THAT ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE HEADS OF POOR HOUSEHOLDS IN THE US DID NOT WORK AT ALL IN THE LAST YEAR
18%
ROUGH ESTIMATES SUGGEST THAT ABOUT BLANK PEOPLE IN THE US ARE HOMELESS FOR SOME TIME IN A GIVEN YEAR
754,000 (PEOPLE LIVING IN SHELTERS, TRANSITIONALLY HOUSE, AND ON THE STREET)
3 MILLION (PEOPLE HOMELESS FOR AT LEAST ONE NIGHT IN A GIVEN YEAR)