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51 terms

Miller Ch 2 Environmental History

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slash and burn cultivation
an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops are then planted among the ashes; also known as swidden farming
hunter gatherers
people who hunt animals and gather wild plants, seeds, fruits, and nuts to survive
shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
frontier environmental worldview
Viewing undeveloped land as a hostile wilderness to be conquered (cleared, planted) and exploited for its resources as quickly as possible.
environmental movement
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
Homo sapiens sapiens
A species of the creatures Hominid who have larger brains and to which humans belong, dependent of language and usage of tools.
agricultural revolution
A time when new inventions such as the seed drill and the steel plow made farming easier and faster. The production of food rose dramatically.
industrial revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
urbanization
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
tribal era
When North America was occupied by 5-10 million people for at least 10.000 years before European settlers began arriving in the early 1600s
David Thoreau
transcendentalist author most well known for his work "Walden"
George Perkins Marsh
An inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, "Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action," provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
John Muir
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
Sierra Club
America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization founded in 1892 in San Fransisco, Cali first President was John Muir group was pushed by the wealthy bc they wanted to conserve the nature (despite all the land the already own and "corrupted") for their later generations
Forest Reserve Act of 1891
Authorized the President to set aside public forests as National Parks and other reserves
preservationist movement
John Muir- Sierra Club. Advocating the protection of large areas of wilderness on public lands from human exploration besides recreational things
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Golden Age of Conservation
referred to Roosevelt's term as president because of the many environmentally friendly laws and policies he put into effect.
Gifford Pinchot
head of the U.S. Forest Servic under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
sustainable yield
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
multiple use
Use of an ecosystem such as a forest for a variety of purposes such as timber harvesting, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreation. Compare sustainable yield.
Antiquities Act of 1906
rotects sites on federal land, allows president to set aside national monuments
National Park Service Act of 1916
Agency that manages all national parks, national monuments and other conservational and historical places.
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
CCC
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
TVA
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Alice Hamilton
A physician who exposed many dangerous substances such as lead, ceramic dust, and chemical waste which were making many people unhealthy
Soil Conservation Act of 1935
Allowed the government to pay farmers to reduce production so as to "conserve soil", prevent erosion, and accomplish other minor goals.
Rachel Carson
Published Silent Spring in 1962; documented the environmental damage done by DDT and other pesticides. Which heightened public awareness at the start of the modern environmental movement.
Silent Spring
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Wilderness Act of 1964
a federal law that established the national wilderness preservation system and placed millions of acres of national forest land in the NWPS
Paul Ehrlich
The Population Bomb (1968 warned that overpopulation would drain resources and kill millions by the 1980s)
Barry Commoner
The Closing Circle, about pollution. Barry commoner's 4 laws of ecology - No such thing as a free lunch - Everything has to be paid for - Everything must go somewhere- Nature knows best
Garrett Hardin
His essay "Tragedy of the Commons" shaped the way we manage our renewable resources.
spaceship earth
A metaphor likening the Earth to a spaceship with limited resources, in which humankind must learn to sustain itself without exhausting the ship's reservoirs.
Gaylord Nelson
Former WI senator who urged Hayes to organize the 1st nationally celebrated Earth Day.
Limits to Growth
limits on industrialization proposed in the 1970s to slow consumption, conserve resources, and preserve natural habitats and wildlife
Clean Water Act of 1977
set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways and created pollutant discharge permits. Goal: to make all water swimmable and fishable
OPEC
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Love Canal of 1978
housing development evacuated because of toxic wastes leaking from an old dumpsite
Three Mile Island 1978
1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
Jimmy Carter
(1977-1981), Created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
Chernobyl
1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in the Ukraine combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius
Montreal Protocol
1987 meeting in Montreal to develop the treaty to cut emissions of CFCs in the atmosphere
Exxon Valdez Oil spill
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24, 1989, when the Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef and spilled 260,000 to 750,000 barrels of crude oil. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters.The Valdez spill was the largest ever in U.S. waters until the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in terms of volume released.
Superfund Law of 1980
Taxes manufacturers of toxic products and uses these revenues to finance the cleanup of toxic-waste water sites
Earth Day
A holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
Paul Cruzen
Discovered the Antarctic ozone hole. Showed the harmful effects of CFCs.
Mario Molina
Discovered the Antarctic ozone hole. Showed the harmful effects of CFCs.
Sherwood Rowland
in 1974, determine that CFCs destroy stratospheric (good) ozone.
Aldo Leopold
"Father" of wildlife management, ecological restoration experiment, wrote A Sand County Almanac