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American History II - Unit 12: Prosperity and Depression (Terms)
Terms in this set (32)
"return to normalcy"
Harding's campaign slogan, wanting to go back to a simpler time like before the war and the Progressive Era.
intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas following the communist takeover of Russia leading to new and increase nativism and discrimination.
young women of the 1920s that flaunted their contempt for conventional behavior by wearing short skirts, bobbing their hair, listening to jazz, smoking and drinking liquor in public, driving automobiles, dancing provocatively and treating sex in a more casual manner.
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by the 18th Amendment.
speakeasies & bootleggers
ways people avoided Prohibition by creating illegal bars and smuggling alcohol; increased organized crime.
literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
hands off approach to governing; the government should not interfere in the economy
economic theory that believes tax cuts can help an economy by allowing businesses and the wealthy to invest more money (from tax cuts) to expand businesses (more jobs) or increase efficiency (cheaper goods) while raising supply and could also help the poor.
Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929)
The day the stock market crashed; contributed to the Great Depression.
when depositors lose confidence in a bank and rush to withdraw their money
Hawley-Smoot Tariff (1930)
highest protective tariff passed after the stock market crash hoping it would help US economy, but instead it resulted in retaliatory tariff increases against the US by other countries; contributed to the Great Depression.
The Great Depression
started with the collapse of the US stock market in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s as a period of worldwide economic depression and widespread unemployment.
soup kitchens & bread lines
places that provided free food during the Great Depression
- World War I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay their retirement bonuses early as angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C.
- Hoover called in the army to remove the veterans using tear gas and burning tents
- a shantytown built by unemployed and poor people during the Great Depression
- out-turned pants pockets to show a person had no money during the Great Depression
- newspaper and other goods used to keep people warm during the Great Depression
A nickname for the Great Plains regions hit by drought and dust storms in the early 1930s lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
radio broadcasts done by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that uplifted Americans during the Great Depression.
- series of reforms enacted by Franklin Roosevelt's administration from 1933-1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
- changed the role of the government to a more active participant in solving problems in American lives
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal agency that hired unemployed men to work on natural conservation projects.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
New Deal agency that helped construct dams and power plants in the Tennessee Valley region to generate electricity as well as to prevent floods.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
New Deal agency attempted to raise crop prices by restricting agricultural production and paying farmers to leave a certain amount of their land unplanted, thus lowering production.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
New Deal agency that monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bonds.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
New Deal program that insures individuals' bank accounts, protecting people against losses due to bank failures.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
New Deal agency that provided millions of jobs constructing public buildings
ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th Amendment.
government practice of borrowing money to spend than the government takes in from taxes creating debt.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal agency that helped create jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings along with federal jobs to artists, musicians, writer, and actors.
National Labor Relations Act/Wagner Act
protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers providing funds to guarantee retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65.
Court Packing Plan
President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges.
Fair Labor Standards Act
law that set a minimum wage, a maximum workweek of 40 hours through 8 hour days, and outlawed child labor.
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