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The amount of blood that flows from each ventricle in one minute. The cardiac output from the left and right ventricle is the same, however blood from the left ventricle is ejected with greater force.

Cardiac Output

A factor of cardiac output and is the number of times the heart beats in one minute.

Heart Rate

A factor of cardiac output and is the amount of blood pumped from each ventricle each time the heart beats. It is measured in ml per beat (1oz=29.6 ml)

Stroke Volume

Cardiac output expression.


The percentage of the total volume of blood in the ventricle at the end of diastole that is subsequently ejected during contraction.

Ejection Fraction

50% due to the minimal need for oxygen in the muscle cells at rest.

Ejection Fraction at Rest

The amount of oxygen taken from the hemoglobin used in the exercising muscle cells.

Oxygen Extraction

The capacity of the muscles to extract oxygen from the blood stream to produce energy.

limiting factor of exercise performance

The bodies energy source. ATP production determines how much work a cell can do before it fatigues.

Adenosine Triphosphate ATP


The Energy Molecule

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