Study guide RTH 102B Exam #1

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Which of the following specimens are commonly collected as the first step in identification of a pathogen?
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An 8-year-old patient is brought to the pediatrician's office with the complaint of uncomplicated flulike symptoms for 1 day. The pediatrician asks you to suggest an inhaled anti-infective. Which medication is the most appropriate at this time?Zanamivir (Relenza) DPI 5 mg per inhalation, 2 inhalations BID for 5daysAerosolized antibiotics have been most consistently used for which disease?Ribavirin for RSV, Tobi (aztreonam)for CF pt to prevent pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pentamidine for immune suppressed pt(HIV) to prevent PCP, Zanamivir for pt with influenzaAminoglycoside antibiotics are effective in treating what kind of germs?used for gram negative infectionsWhat is Relenza?Brand name of zanamivir Med used for influenzaZanamivir would be indicated for which disease?Inhibit influenza A and B neuraminidaseA patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) has received systemic treatment for the infection, without success. You recommend aerosolizing what?Tobramycin(aminoglycosides)Tobramycin is a member of which antibiotic group?AminoglycosidesWhat Precautionary measures that are suggested when administering pentamidine?use respiragard II svn, need one way valve and expiratory filter, may be admin. In a room or tent that acts as a vacuum to draw any particles that have escaped to a filter.What are adverse effect of TOBI?Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade, cross allergenicity, fetal harm, (aerosolized: tinnitus and voice alterationAerosolized aztreonam would be indicated for what kind of disease?used for cf pts to improve PCPWhat is the most simplest and most common method of preparing bacteria for examination Gram stain(positive=purple, negativie=red) the simplest way is to put it onto a slide and follow the steps necessary to get the end results.A drug that inhibits the growth of bacteria is called what?bacteriostaticDefine bactericidal agent and bacteriostatic agents.Bactericidal=kills bacteria, Bacteriostatic=inhibits the growth of bacteriawhat is the mechanism of penicillin?inhibiting cell wall synthesisThe natural penicillin's are primarily effective against what kind of germs?Gram positive bacteria and anaerobes (syphilis and pharyngitis caused by streptococci)The adverse reaction to penicillinmost common is hypersensitivity (light rash to life-threatening anaphylaxis)Aminoglycosides are used primarily for what kind of diseases?Gram negative infections including infections caused by P. AeruginosaVentilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been successfully treated with what type of antibiotic?Gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacinAminoglycosides, such as tobramycin, is used for what type of disease.Cystic fibrosisTetracyclines are effective against what kind of germs?Gram neg and pos. microorganisms and many rickettsiae, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, spirochetes, protozoa, and mycobacteriumWhat antibiotic is used to treat Pneumocystis carinii (jiroveci) infections?Pentamidine (NebuPent)Know the name of tuberculosis (TB) drugs, their toxic effect (255/256) isoniazid hepatotoxicityrifampin hepatotoxicity; rifabutin, rifapentine, pyrazinamide hepatotoxicity arthralgia hyperuricemia; ethambutol optic neuritis; streptomycin ototoxicity nephrotoxicityIsoniazid is used to treat which disease and what is its toxic effect.TB/ hepatoxicity nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, peripheral neuritis, rash, fever, anemiaThe treatment of choice for pulmonary infections such as aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis - antifungal drugs.polyenes, azoles echinocandinsA major toxic effect of amphotericin Bflushing fever and chills, renal impairmentWhich group of antibiotics is effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients when taken orally?Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin)Cephalosporins exert their pharmacologic activity by which mechanism?inhibit cell wall synthesis similar to penicillin'sMacrolides exhibit activity against what kind of germs/bacteria?Gram positive and gram negativeMacrolides exert their pharmacologic action.inhibit protein synthesis 50s ribosomalQuinolones exert their pharmacologic activation how?Inhibition of DNA synthesisYour patient's sputum culture indicated the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Which medication is appropriate to treat this infection?VancomycinA patient is receiving the medication valacyclovir. This patient is most likely being treated for what kind of disease?Herpes simplex 1, Herpes simplex 2, Varicella zoster virus,What is common cold?nonbacterial respiratory tract infection, generally caused by a viral infection of the epithelial layer of the upper airway and characterized by malaise, low grade fever cough sneezing and a runny noseWhat causes common cold?Viral infection of the epithelial layer of the upper airwayHow you treat common cold?sympathomimetics, antihistamines, expectorants, anititussivesName nasal decongestant? What is effect of repeated application of adrenergic agents by nasal spray?afrin (oxymetazoline), increased secretions and nasal edema as the agent fades (rebound congestion) pt can become addicted to the agentWhat is most important mediator of local inflammatory responses?histaminesWhat are histamine receptors: H1, H2, H3 and so onh1= respond to allergic reaction and inflammation, h2= regulate gastric acid secretion and feedback control of histamine release, h3= autoreceptors for cholinergic neurotransmission int the airway at the autonomic gangliaWhere histamine receptors are located?h1= nerve endings, smooth muscle, and glandular cells,h2= gastric region, h3=cnsWhat type of antihistamine is typically found in common cold medications?H1What are drugs for H2 receptors? Name thosecimetidine (tagamet), ranitidine (zantac)What are agent facilitate removal of mucus by lysing action and what are their names?mucolytic (dornase alfa) pulmozymeWhat are expectorant and how those work?remove mucus from lower airway, reduce adhesiveness and surface tension of mucus and increase mucokinesisWhat are over the counter expectorant available in USA?robitussin, mucinex (stimulant)What are Cough suppressants? How do these drugs work?used to tx nonproductive irritating, dry, hacking cough, depresses the cough center in the medulla. Narcotics exert powerful depressant. Codeine or hydrocodone, nonnarcotic= dextramethorphanName the stimulant expectorant?guaifenesin