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POL 1 - Midterm UCD
Terms in this set (54)
The discrepancy between what citizens ideally would like their agents to do and how the agents actually behave
Parties that must work together to negotiate a common course of action find that they rarely want precisely the same thing
- The time, effort, resources required to compare preferences and make collective decisions. It increases when the number of participants rise.
- an action taken by a group of like-minded individuals to achieve a common goal
Someone who possesses decision-making authority; may delegate their authority to agents who then exercise it on behalf of the principals
goods that are collectively produced and freely available for anyone's consumption
Constitutional and legal protections from government interfence with personal rights and freedoms such as freedom of assembly, speech, and religion
The powers or privileges that are granted on citizens by the constitution and the courts and that entitle them to make claims upon the government. Civil rights protect individuals from arbitrary or discriminatory treatment at the hands of the government.
separate but equal doctrine
the supreme court - racial segregation did not necessarily violate the 14 amendment to the US Constitution and guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all people
Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme court ruled that US state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional
Jim Crow Laws
- A series of laws enacted in the late 19th century by southern states to institute segregation. These laws created "white only" signs public accommodations such as schools, hotels, and restaurants
The three-part test for Establishment Clause cases that a law must pass before it is declared constitutional. Must satisfy to avoid religion prohibition and was intended to prevent any governmental endorsement
Judicially created rights based on various guarantees of the Bill of Rights. The right to privacy is not explicitly stated in the Constitution, but the Supreme Court has argued that this right is implicit in various clauses found throughout the Bill of Rights.
States cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens that are enshrined in the bill of rights and the ability of the federal government to limit the states lawmaking power
Free Exercise Clause
The second clause of the First Amendment - forbids the national government from interfering with the exercise of religion
A judicial rule prohibiting the police from using at trail evidence obtained through illegal search and seizure
defined as publicly offensive acts or language, usually of a sexual nature, with no redeeming social value.
is when a story or piece of news is portrayed in a particular way and is meant to sway the consumer's attitude one way or the other usually affects citizen criteria on how to evaluate candidates, campaigns, and political issues.
· Media defines the meaning of political issues and the media decides how to cover it
Occurs when readers and watchers of news that relates to the criteria with which we evaluate candidates or elected leaders are influenced by what the press covers in a very specific way - it influences what they think about, not what they think
· Media affects criteria by which political leaders are judged. The more the prominent the issue, the more in becomes in consciousness so issue will influence people assessment of politicians
tool developed in the 20th century for systematically investigating the opinions of ordinary people, based on random samples
A state of mind produced when particular issues evoke attitudes and beliefs that pull in opposite directions
· Conflicting reactions, beliefs, or feelings towards something
uncertainties in public opinion that arise from the imperfect connection between the wording survey questions and the terms in which people understand and think about political objects
A comprehensive, integrated set of views about government and politics
· It forms the basis and justification for political decisions that affect who gets what, when they get it and how they get it
groups of citizens who are more attentive to particular areas of public policy than average citizens because such groups have some special ties in the issues
The process by which citizens acquire their political beliefs and values
a citizen who is highly attentive to and involved in politics or some related area and to whom other citizens turn for political information and cues
Increasingly popular, nontraditional source of political information that combines news and entertainment. Examples include talk shows and political comedy programs
Style of journalism born of intense competition and characterized by screaming headlines and sensational stories
Newspapers that present little or no legitimate well-researched news while instead using eye-catching headlines for increased sales like exaggerations of news events, scandals, etc
the number of individuals that an area can support without sustaining damage
Journalistic investigation and exposure of scandals, corruption, and injustices, pioneered during the late 19th century progressive era
policy announced by the president in order to test public opinion and floated either by members of congress or the media
Strategically consequential information given to reporters on the condition that its source not be identified by name
Rights to work laws
Prohibiting union security agreement contracts requiring workers to join union
Was a prominent Civil rights attorney and activist who used the 1965 Voting Rights act to increase fairness for minority rights. He played a very important rule in the Plyler Case and Watsonville case.
California Voting Rights Act
- It eliminates a requirement that a district exists where a group could be a majority cities must pay all legal fees if a plaintiff prevails
A 17-year-old who was sentenced to death in 1993. After the court ruled that executing the mentally disabled constituted cruel and unusual punishment because a majority of Americans found it cruel and unusual, the Missouri court decided that executing minors was no longer valid.
Roper v. Simmons
the death penalty cannot be administered to those who were 17 years of age or under when the offense was committed
Rock the Vote
This encourages people to sign up to vote and show up to the polls. Progressive, nonprofit organizations whose mission is to engage and build the political power of young people
National Voter Registration Act of 1993
Act that was passed in order to enhance voting opportunities for every American.
Explanation of how people learn and respond to information.
· Former mayor of Sacramento and he is an example of a politician relying on news media since the golden age of television has declined
Affective Partisan Polarization
The steady growth of the mutual dislike between republicans and democrats since the 1970s.
How did the civil rights demonstrations of the 1960s change the political calculations of Democratic politicians? How were the demonstrations planned strategically to increase pressure on politicians?
Civil Rights is the protection by government power; things government must secure on behalf of it citizens which changed the political calculations of democratic politicians. Northern Democrats needed Southern support to retain power, they became more receptive to African American voters. Politicians became more successful when they appealed to the political or economic interests of the majority. Civil rights leaders in the 1960s sought to pressure elected officials with demonstrations designed to attract media attention. These efforts led to the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 which brought about fundamental change by shifting the burden for protecting civil rights from individual plaintiffs (party who initiates a lawsuit) to federal authorities
The Constitution in 1787 did not seriously address civil liberties. How did the Constitution acquire the many civil liberties we enjoy today? What consequences have the expansion of civil liberties had for the balance of power in the American political system, and for the protections offered by the Bill of Rights?
Congress could not make a law abridging the freedom of speech, assembly and press. The consequences of the balance of power is that absolute language not withstanding civil liberties is a line drawing or boundary setting activity that separates what government actions are and are not permissible. Nationalization of civil liberties by inclusion of the bill of rights.
What is the Court's current stance on capital punishment? What have been some past Court objections to executions, and how have states attempted to address these issues?
Constitutes cruel and unusual punishment on crimes of minors. Roger vs. Simmons was a court case where a 17-year-old was sentence to the death penalty. However, the courts later ruled that executing the mentally disabled constituted cruel and unusual punishment because a majority of Americans found it cruel and unusual, the Missouri court decided that executing minors was no longer valid.
What are some of the important individual differences between those who vote and those who do not? Do the strategies of candidates and political parties seeking to mobilize voters enhance or diminish these differences? Please explain.
Those who vote usually have less barriers and have deeper roots in their community. The strategies enhance the differences because lessening of community roots and lessening of political efficacy and partisan attachment.
What factors undermined the accuracy of early polling attempts? How did scientific polling improve upon early polling attempts? What factors can undermine the accuracy of even "scientific" polling?
Problems with question wording and representativeness of samples undermined the accuracy of early polling attempts. Before scientific polling, politicians gauged public opinion by relying on information supplied by things like editorials, pamphleteers, local leaders, spokespersons for social group, party activist and sometimes less conventional sources. Scientific polling developed a tool for systematically investigating the opinions of ordinary people. The rate of improvement accuracy declines with a poll's margin of error, although large sample sizes are considered to be reflective of the answers of the entire population, sample sizes larger than 1,200 - 1,500 people produce less accurate results for representing the overall population.
What are opinion leaders? Why might individuals rely on the statements or positions of these opinion leaders in forming their own opinions?
Opinion leaders are individuals and groups that are incentivized to collect and disseminate information about particular issues, they provide cues that uninformed citizens can use to make informed political decisions. Most individual opinions are unstable, many individuals have no incentive to pay attention to politics and are ambivalent about many political issues. As a result, the stability of aggregate opinion is attributable to opinion leaders.
What are the potential problems with delegating authority to representatives in government? How do elections help reduce these risks?
Causes free riding because other people vote for others. Agency loss, conformity cost if you don't agree with everything they stand for but you vote for them so we have to put up with it. Lack of information if you delegate to someone. Elections help because politicians want to get elected so they do what the people want, campaigns help see what information they stand for and brings more political information, elections advertise the conformity costs that you may have to put up with.
Voting involves making a choice between a future governed by one candidate or the other. However, most voters cannot predict the future. What tools allow voters to make these predictions of future performance?
The tool that will help people is campaigns because it helps see what info the candidates stand for and brings more political information. They are also able to use the internet in which they have easy accessibility to research wo they are voting for.
How do market forces make political news more "democratic"? Have market forces played the same role in press coverage throughout U.S. history?
Market forces make political news more democratic because the printing process was difficult therefore news quickly turned to pamphlets, to penny press, to radio to tv, and to internet. Newspapers were based on party subsidies and the penny press had a larger audience and then tv radio and interment left to instant news, and therefore there is no exact measurement that a business model can translate and growing an online audience turns to revenue. The news carrying capacity became unlimited.
Why did newspaper editors accept party subsidies in the early Republic? What motivated these same editors to give up the subsidies later? Why didn't they give them up earlier?
Businesses had an incentive to reach a mass audience and the market size depended on the price. Caused editors to give up because political news was covered less and there was an increased pressure by advertisers and readers to be bipartisan, and there was competition for mass leadership.
Compare and contrast problems of coordination, free riding, the prisoner's dilemma, and the tragedy of the commons. Give a real-world example of each. What solutions, programs, or policies have been proposed for addressing these problems? To what extent is government regulation necessary for overcoming the incentives of private actors? Please explain.
problems of coordination - A situation in which two or more people are all better off if every player chooses the same course of action, but there may be a disagreement about which course of action is best.
the tragedy of the commons - is a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users, acting independently according to their own self-interest, behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling the shared resource through their collective action.
· Trace the history of the news media from the early days of the Republic to today. How has the news media changed over time, and why have these changes occurred? What have politicians done to adapt to these changes in the media environment? Your assessment should start with the role of early newspapers and end with a discussion of new technologies, such as the Internet.
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