human growth and development test 3

how much does height and weight increase by?
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Terms in this set (98)
teeth are affected by ___ and ___diet and illnessby age 2, the brain weights ___ percent of what it will weight in adulthood75by age 6, the brain weights ___ percent of what it will weigh90what is the ability to organized and prioritize the many thoughts that arise from the various parts of the brain called?executive functionwhat are the benefits of maturation of the prefrontal cortex?-sleep becomes more regular -emotions become nuanced and responsive -temper tantrums subside -uncontrollable laughter and tears are less commonwhat connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain and is linked to autism and ADHD?corpus callosumwhat is lateralization?one side of the brain is dominant for certain activities___-handedness is usually discouraged by societyleftwhite mattermyelinationthe brain's ___ half controls areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language; LANGUAGE, MOTOR SKILLSleftthe brain's ___ half controls areas dedicated to emotional and creative impulses; BIG PICTURE, FACESrightwhat is the ability to postpone or deny an immediate response to an idea or behaviorimpulse controlwhat is the tendency to stick to one thought or action for a long timeperservationwhat system controls emotions?limbic systemwhat brain structure registers emotions, esp fear and anxiety?amygdalawhat brain structure is the main processor of memory?hippocampussleep regulation is controlled by the ___hypothalamuswhat is the second of Piaget's four period of cognitive development?preoperational thought___ is the belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive in the way that humans areanimismwhat is the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation?centration___ is a term used to describe a child who believes that everything revolves around him/heregocentrisimwhat is the term used to describe when a child focuses on what they see and presumes it to be true?focus on appearance___ ___ refers to the thought that the world is unchanging.static reasoningwhat is it called when someone believes that change cannot be undone?irreversibilitywhat is the idea that the amount of something remains the same despite changes in its appearance?conservationVygotsky's term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of societyapprenticeship in thinkingthe process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorationsguided participationwhat is the term used to describe a child's surroundings including all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the he or she is close to grasping but need help?zone of proximal development___ is temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities?scaffoldingwhat is the idea that children construct theories to explain whatever they see or hear?theory-theorywhat is a person's theory of what other people might be thinking?theory of mindthe average child knows about ___ words at age 2 and more than ___ at age 6.500; 10,000what is the speedy and sometimes imprecise way that children learn new words by categorizing them?fast-mappingwhat is the term used to describe the way children learn a new words and use it to try to describe objects in the same category?logical extension___ includes structures, techniques, and rules that communicate meaning.grammarwhat is the improper usage of grammar rules called?overregularization___ is the changing of language depending on your audience?pragmaticswhat is the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed?; PREEMINENT TASK BW 2 AND 6emotional regulation or effortful control___ vs. ___ is erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which young children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.initiative vs. guilt___ motivation is motivation that comes from within.intrinsic___ motivation comes from something that is rewarded.extrinsicimaginary friends sometimes facilitates ___ motivation.intrinsic___ is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake.playpretend play is when the child is ___; ___ play is when the child has playmatesalone; social playwhat type of play is when the child plays alone?solitary playwhat type of play is when a child watches someone else play?onlooker playwhat type of play occurs when children play with similar objects by not together?parallel playwhat type of play occurs when children interact and share material but the play is not reciprocal?associative playwhat type of play occurs when children play together?cooperative playwhat type of play seems to be rough but has no intention to harm in reality?rough-and-tough playwhat is pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in plots that they create?sociodramatic playsociodramatic play allows children to-explore and rehearse social roles -learn to explain their ideas/ persuade others -practice emotional regulations by pretending -develop self-concept in a nonthreatening contextwhat are the four important dimensions that parents differ on?-expressions of warmth -communication -expectations for maturity -strategies for disciplinewhat parenting style is characterized by strict disciplinarians?authoritarianwhat parenting style is characterized by high nurturance and warmth but little to no discipline?permisivewhat parenting style is characterized by being a mixture bw permissive and authoritarian?authoritativewhat parenting style does not care about their children?neglectful/uninvolvedoutcomes of authoritarian parenting style-obedient, conscientious -not really happy -tend to feel guilty or depressed -internalize frustrations -leave home by age 20outcomes of permissive parenting style-lack self-control -inadequate emotion regulation -immature and unhappy -still dependent on parents in adulthoodoutcomes of authoritative parenting style-successful -happy with themselves and generous to others -usually liked by teachers in cultures that value initiativeoutcomes of neglectful parenting style-immature -sad, lonely -at risk of injury and abusewhat is antipathy?hatredwhat is helpful behavior?prosocial behaviorwhat is a term used to describe destructive, harmful behavior?antisocial behaviorwhat type of aggression is used in order to achieve something?instrumentalwhat type of aggression is spontaneous and a response to someone else's actions?reactivewhat type of aggression is largely verbal?relationalwhat type of aggression is describe by repeated, unprovoked attacks on someone who cannot defend themselves?bullyingbrain maturation is described by:-myelination of the limbic system -growth of the prefrontal cortex -larger attention span___ differences are biological.sex___ differences are culturally prescribed.genderwhat is the act of displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics?androgynyby age ___ children begin to use gender labels2by age ___ children are convinced that certain toys and roles are reserved for one sex or the other4at age ___ there is increased awareness and strong gender identity5at age ___ children realize that their biological sex is a permanent trait8the ___ stage is freud's name for the period from ages 3 to 6.phallicwhat is the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win their mother's exclusive love?oedipuswhat is the electra complex?penis envy; counterpart to the oedipus complexto behaviorists, gender distinction are the product of ongoing ___ and ___, as well as social learningreinforcement and punishmentwhat is the act of noticing the ways that men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe?social learning theorya ___ ___ is a child's cognitive concept or general belief about male and female differencesgender schema___ prevention includes sidewalks, pedestrian overpasses, street lights, traffic lights, and stop signs?primary___ prevention reduces danger in high risk situations, including car seats, school crossing guards, salt on icy roadssecondarytertiary prevention reduces damage ___ the incidentafter___ percent of all deaths were from accidents14___ has one of the highest rates worldwide of child motorvehicle deathsIndiaplumbism is another name for:lead poisoning