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Bio 102 Test #1
Terms in this set (44)
A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results.
General steps in scientific method
Observation, propose an explanation or hypothesis that is testable and makes a prediction, then test hypothesis through experiments.
General steps that make up a good hypothesis
Testable with a proposed solution, and a result.
An experiment in which the participants have no additional information about the variables being tested.
When neither researchers nor participants knows which of the participants receive treatment.
Measures two comparable groups and exposes only one group to a changed variable.
Refers to the deviation from the truth in the collection, analysis, interpretation, or publication of data, which can lead to false conclusions.
Maintained under standard unaltered conditions. No variables are changed.
The experimental group maintained under the same conditions as the same conditions as the control, but with one manipulated variable.
Example of conformation bias
A wine bottle connoisseurs allowed to see labels on the wine bottles generally rate wine known to be more expensive with higher scores than inexpensive wine.
Elements with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Spatially explicit predictions of elemental isotope ratios that are produced by executing process-level models of elemental isotope.
Are amino acids only made by living things?
No, not only
Are we sure that life arose on earth?
No, life could have came from another planet.
Think about the amino acids on earth. What is different about them, when compared to amino acids in meteorites?
Meteorites carry amino acids. Earth amino acids are all left handed but the ones on the meteorites are a mix of left and right handed.
Think of a few ways we might be able to identify earth life from space life (like bacteria).
Hydrothermal vents, found on earth, amino acids which are only found in them, contains sulfur, and smells like gas. Chimmey is at the bottom of the ocean and shoots out rocks. Tectonic plates and is only in burning hot water.
What was the difference between the early earth atmosphere and the one we have now? and what caused it?
Oxygen and bacteria more specifically cyanobacteria.
Could new life (new cells made from chemical building blocks, rather than from dividing living cells) still be forming itself now? Why/why not?
No, needs oxygen.
What were the first life forms on earth (that we know of?)
Bacteria: Earliest bacteria branch is aquifex and thermotoga.
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Dies in the presence of oxygen , no/little tolerance for oxygen.
(Later bacteria) Facultative aerobe
Flexible, these can make ATP using oxygen if its present, but can also switch to fermentation if there is no oxygen.
Uses oxygen to make ATP(energy).
An organism that cannot make its own food.
An organism that makes its own food.
Live inside us that became our mitochondria.
Capable of using sunlight for energy, becoming chloroplast. Mostly plant based.
Formation of new species
A genetic form of a group that came from one common ancestor.
You can not cut off for another group.
Phylogeny and what does it measure.
Trees that measure us by genetics. Ancestors and generations.
A gene, mutates regularly, cannot be inherited, only through sperm.
Can we use molecular clocks on bacteria? Why/why not?
No, because of horizontal gene transfer. Vertical means inherited.
Piece of DNA that bacteria has that it can give to its neighbors. Can make copy of each other.
How do bacteria get new DNA?
Get viruses by others then gives it to another. Bacteria uses pieces inside of you and they poke each other and give each other DNA.
Are inherited by common ancestors.
Can not be inherited you just have them and it is used separately.
Which (homologous or analogous) come from convergent evolution?
Analogous, because they can not be inherited and are used separately.
Rod shaped bacteria
Curved shaped bacteria
A toxic component of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria that is released only when the bacteria die.
A poisonous protein secreted by certain bacteria.
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