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104 terms

A&P Chapter 15 - Cardiovascular System: Heart

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the outer portion of the pericardium is the
fibrous pericardium
the layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the inside of the myocardium is called
endocardium
cardiac muscle fibers are connected with each other by
intercalated discs
the portion of the heart that consists of cardiac muscle tissue is the
myocardium
which portion of the heart has the thickest myocardium
left ventricle
blood transported by the pulmonary veins returns to the
left atrium
muscular wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right wall because it
pumps blood to the entire body
the left ventricle pumps the blood into the
ascending aorta
which blood vessel delivers blood to the right atrium
vena cava
the blood vessel that carries blood highest in O2 is the
pulmonary vein
the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the
bicuspid valve
the valve between the left ventricle and the blood vessel leaving the left ventricle is the
tricuspid valve
the blood vessel that collects deoxygenated blood of the coronary circulation and empties into the right atrium is the
coronary sinus
death of an area of cardiac tissue due to an interrupted blood supply is called
myocardial infarction (MI)
the blood supply to the myocardial wall of the heart is supplied by the
coronary arteries
the normal pacemaker of the heart is/are the
sinoatrial node
which of the following represents the correct sequence of structures in the cardiac conduction system
SA node, AV node, bundle of HIS, Purkinje figers
the P wave of a ECG indicates
atrial depolarization
atrial repolarization is indicated by the
none of the above
which of the following represents the correct order of ECG waves
P, QRS, T
at rest each cardiac cycle lasts
@ 0.8 seconds
the remaining 25% of the blood that fills the ventricles after the relaxation period occurs during
atrial systole
closing of the AV valves produces
the first heart sound (lubb)
heart murmurs are usually the result of defective
valves
the cardiac output is
the milliliters of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle
the CV center is located in the
medulla oblongata
which of the following causes an increase in the rate of the heartbeat
norepinephrine
changes in BP are detected by
baroreceptors
impulses carried by means of the vagus nerve are
parasympathetic impulses that decrease the heart rate
the average heartbeat of a healthy human is
75 BPM
the study of the heart and diseases associated with it is known as
cardiology
the bulk of the heart consists of
myocardium
the two upper chambers of the heart are separated from each other by the
interatrial septum
which of the following is/are risk factor(s) for the development of heart disease
high BP, diabetes mellitus, genetic disposition
the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the
tricuspid valve
when blood moves from atrium to a ventricle
the valve is pushed open, the papillary muscles relax, the corordae tendinae slacken
parasympathetic neurons reach the heart via the ______ cranial nerve
X (10th) cranial nerve
a fluttering of the heart is called
palpitation
blood from which three vessels enters the right atrium
the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus
atherosclerosis is a condition in which
fatty deposits called plaque partially block the arteries
why is the right ventricle wall thinner than the left ventricle
the left ventricle has to pump blood further, if the right pumped as hard as the left, the lungs would burst
which of the following does not regulate stroke volume
age
pulmonary edema results from
congestive heart failure
the increase in blood pressure during exercise could
cause unstable plaque in a blood vessel to rupture triggering the clotting process
during strenuous exercise, a well trained athlete can achieve a cardiac output _____ that of a sedentary person
double
fluid compressing the heart causes a life threatening condition called
cardiac tamponade
CAD
coronary artery disease
the 'good' chemical that takes cholesterol to the liver for elimination is
LDL - low density lipoproteins
t/f all arteries contain oxygenated blood and all veins contain non-oxygenated blood
false
t/fatrioventricular valves are held closed by chordae tendinae and papillary muscles
true
t/f the heart valves prevent the backflow of blood during the cardiac cycle
true
t/f the autonomic nervous system initiates the contraction of the heart
false
t/f malfunctioning heart valves is called myocardial infarction
false
t/f blood flow through the heart is caused by changes in the size of the chambers
true
t/f the atria receive the blood returning to the heart
true
t/f acetylcholine released by the parasympathetic fibers increases the rate of the heartbeat
false
t/f elevated levels of potassium decrease the heart rate and strength of contraction
true
t/f the rate of the heartbeat stays constant throughout life
false
t/f exercise increases cardiac efficiency and output
true
t/f The pericardium is actually 3 layers. The outer layer is the parietal pericardium that forms the rather
inelastic pericardial cavity around the heart. The middle is the visceral pericardium. The inner layer is
called either the fibrous pericardium if you are talking about pericardial coverings or epicardium if you
are talking about layers of the heart.
false
t/f O2 is sent to the myocardium first through the cardiac arteries
false
t/f in general, heart attack risk is low for those who exercise regularly and higher for those who do not
true
t/f any irregular heart rhythm is arrhythmia
true
t/f ischemia, hypoxia, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction all result from a lack of O2 to the heart tissue
true
t/f there is evidence from heart transplants that there is replacement of heart cells
true
t/f overall, the incidence of death during physical activity is relatively high
false
t/f the beginning of an atherosclerotic plaque is a fatty streak formed from macrophages eating LDL particles and T-cells
true
t/f silent myocardial ischemia is reduced blood flow to the heart tissue without any pain or forewarning
true
t/f valvular stenosis a combination of 4 defects including the aorta emerging from both ventricles
false
the inner visceral layer of the pericardium is also called the
epicardium
the scientific study of the normal heart and diseases associated with it is called
cardiology
the space between the parietal and visceral pericardial membranes is the
pericardial cavity
inflammation of the pericardium is called
pericarditis
the thickenings of the sarcolemma that connect the cardiac muscle fibers are
intercalated discs
the backflow of blood through an incompletely closed valves is called
regurgitation
the pouchlike structure on the anterior surface of each atrium is called
auricle
the right ventricle pumps blood into the
pulmonary trunk
the coronary arteries originate as branches of the
ascending aorta
the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle is called the
tricuspid valve
the large vein in the back of the heart collecting deoxygenated blood is the
coronary sinus
the structure that picks up an action potential from the SA node is/are the
AV node
the medical term for heart attack is
myocardial infarction
a recording of the electrical changes that accompany the heartbeat is called a(n)
electrocardiogram
the spread of action potential through the ventricles is recorded as the _______ wave of an ECG
QRS wave
the specialized tissue capable of conducting action potentials and allowing the heart to beat without direct stimulus from the nervous system is the
conduction system
contraction of the heart muscle is referred to as
systole
heart sounds are produced by the _______ of the AV valves and the semilunar valves
closing
the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each contraction is called the
stroke volume
the _________ law of the heart explains the relationship between the stretching of the ventricular wall and the contraction stregth
Starling's law
a general term referring to an irregularity in the rhythm of the heart is
arrhythmia
a procedure that is used to visualize the coronary arteries, chambers, valves and great vessels is
cardiac catheterization
the neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic fibers that increase the rate of the heartbeat is
norepinephrine
an incomplete closure of the interventricular septum causes
interventricular septal defect
a defect that exists at birth, and usually before, is called a(n)
congential defect
SA node
pacemaker of the heart
tricuspid valve
located between right atrium and right ventricle
bicuspid valve
located between left atrium and left ventricle
Purkinje fibers
emerge from the bundle branches
myocardium
consists of cardiac muscle tissue
epicardium
external layer of the heart wall
systole
contraction of the heart chambers
diastole
relaxation of the heart chambers
aorta
blood vessel associated with theleft ventricle
pulmonary trunk
blood vessel associated with the right ventricle