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the outer portion of the pericardium is the

fibrous pericardium

the layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the inside of the myocardium is called


cardiac muscle fibers are connected with each other by

intercalated discs

the portion of the heart that consists of cardiac muscle tissue is the


which portion of the heart has the thickest myocardium

left ventricle

blood transported by the pulmonary veins returns to the

left atrium

muscular wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right wall because it

pumps blood to the entire body

the left ventricle pumps the blood into the

ascending aorta

which blood vessel delivers blood to the right atrium

vena cava

the blood vessel that carries blood highest in O2 is the

pulmonary vein

the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the

bicuspid valve

the valve between the left ventricle and the blood vessel leaving the left ventricle is the

tricuspid valve

the blood vessel that collects deoxygenated blood of the coronary circulation and empties into the right atrium is the

coronary sinus

death of an area of cardiac tissue due to an interrupted blood supply is called

myocardial infarction (MI)

the blood supply to the myocardial wall of the heart is supplied by the

coronary arteries

the normal pacemaker of the heart is/are the

sinoatrial node

which of the following represents the correct sequence of structures in the cardiac conduction system

SA node, AV node, bundle of HIS, Purkinje figers

the P wave of a ECG indicates

atrial depolarization

atrial repolarization is indicated by the

none of the above

which of the following represents the correct order of ECG waves


at rest each cardiac cycle lasts

@ 0.8 seconds

the remaining 25% of the blood that fills the ventricles after the relaxation period occurs during

atrial systole

closing of the AV valves produces

the first heart sound (lubb)

heart murmurs are usually the result of defective


the cardiac output is

the milliliters of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle

the CV center is located in the

medulla oblongata

which of the following causes an increase in the rate of the heartbeat


changes in BP are detected by


impulses carried by means of the vagus nerve are

parasympathetic impulses that decrease the heart rate

the average heartbeat of a healthy human is

75 BPM

the study of the heart and diseases associated with it is known as


the bulk of the heart consists of


the two upper chambers of the heart are separated from each other by the

interatrial septum

which of the following is/are risk factor(s) for the development of heart disease

high BP, diabetes mellitus, genetic disposition

the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle is the

tricuspid valve

when blood moves from atrium to a ventricle

the valve is pushed open, the papillary muscles relax, the corordae tendinae slacken

parasympathetic neurons reach the heart via the ______ cranial nerve

X (10th) cranial nerve

a fluttering of the heart is called


blood from which three vessels enters the right atrium

the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus

atherosclerosis is a condition in which

fatty deposits called plaque partially block the arteries

why is the right ventricle wall thinner than the left ventricle

the left ventricle has to pump blood further, if the right pumped as hard as the left, the lungs would burst

which of the following does not regulate stroke volume


pulmonary edema results from

congestive heart failure

the increase in blood pressure during exercise could

cause unstable plaque in a blood vessel to rupture triggering the clotting process

during strenuous exercise, a well trained athlete can achieve a cardiac output _____ that of a sedentary person


fluid compressing the heart causes a life threatening condition called

cardiac tamponade


coronary artery disease

the 'good' chemical that takes cholesterol to the liver for elimination is

LDL - low density lipoproteins

t/f all arteries contain oxygenated blood and all veins contain non-oxygenated blood


t/fatrioventricular valves are held closed by chordae tendinae and papillary muscles


t/f the heart valves prevent the backflow of blood during the cardiac cycle


t/f the autonomic nervous system initiates the contraction of the heart


t/f malfunctioning heart valves is called myocardial infarction


t/f blood flow through the heart is caused by changes in the size of the chambers


t/f the atria receive the blood returning to the heart


t/f acetylcholine released by the parasympathetic fibers increases the rate of the heartbeat


t/f elevated levels of potassium decrease the heart rate and strength of contraction


t/f the rate of the heartbeat stays constant throughout life


t/f exercise increases cardiac efficiency and output


t/f The pericardium is actually 3 layers. The outer layer is the parietal pericardium that forms the rather
inelastic pericardial cavity around the heart. The middle is the visceral pericardium. The inner layer is
called either the fibrous pericardium if you are talking about pericardial coverings or epicardium if you
are talking about layers of the heart.


t/f O2 is sent to the myocardium first through the cardiac arteries


t/f in general, heart attack risk is low for those who exercise regularly and higher for those who do not


t/f any irregular heart rhythm is arrhythmia


t/f ischemia, hypoxia, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction all result from a lack of O2 to the heart tissue


t/f there is evidence from heart transplants that there is replacement of heart cells


t/f overall, the incidence of death during physical activity is relatively high


t/f the beginning of an atherosclerotic plaque is a fatty streak formed from macrophages eating LDL particles and T-cells


t/f silent myocardial ischemia is reduced blood flow to the heart tissue without any pain or forewarning


t/f valvular stenosis a combination of 4 defects including the aorta emerging from both ventricles


the inner visceral layer of the pericardium is also called the


the scientific study of the normal heart and diseases associated with it is called


the space between the parietal and visceral pericardial membranes is the

pericardial cavity

inflammation of the pericardium is called


the thickenings of the sarcolemma that connect the cardiac muscle fibers are

intercalated discs

the backflow of blood through an incompletely closed valves is called


the pouchlike structure on the anterior surface of each atrium is called


the right ventricle pumps blood into the

pulmonary trunk

the coronary arteries originate as branches of the

ascending aorta

the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle is called the

tricuspid valve

the large vein in the back of the heart collecting deoxygenated blood is the

coronary sinus

the structure that picks up an action potential from the SA node is/are the

AV node

the medical term for heart attack is

myocardial infarction

a recording of the electrical changes that accompany the heartbeat is called a(n)


the spread of action potential through the ventricles is recorded as the _______ wave of an ECG

QRS wave

the specialized tissue capable of conducting action potentials and allowing the heart to beat without direct stimulus from the nervous system is the

conduction system

contraction of the heart muscle is referred to as


heart sounds are produced by the _______ of the AV valves and the semilunar valves


the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during each contraction is called the

stroke volume

the _________ law of the heart explains the relationship between the stretching of the ventricular wall and the contraction stregth

Starling's law

a general term referring to an irregularity in the rhythm of the heart is


a procedure that is used to visualize the coronary arteries, chambers, valves and great vessels is

cardiac catheterization

the neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic fibers that increase the rate of the heartbeat is


an incomplete closure of the interventricular septum causes

interventricular septal defect

a defect that exists at birth, and usually before, is called a(n)

congential defect

SA node

pacemaker of the heart

tricuspid valve

located between right atrium and right ventricle

bicuspid valve

located between left atrium and left ventricle

Purkinje fibers

emerge from the bundle branches


consists of cardiac muscle tissue


external layer of the heart wall


contraction of the heart chambers


relaxation of the heart chambers


blood vessel associated with theleft ventricle

pulmonary trunk

blood vessel associated with the right ventricle

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