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101 terms

A&P Chapter 18 - The Respiratory System

STUDY
PLAY
which of the following belongs to the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system
alveolar ducts
the exchange of gases between blood & cells is called
internal respiration
which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting portion of the respiratory system
alveolar ducts
the internal part of the nose is connected through the
internal nares
the nasal cavity is lined with
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
the palatine tonsils are found in the
oropharynx
the structure with openings to the Eustachian tubes is the
nasopharynx
the nasal cavity is divided into right and left sides by the
nasal septum
which of the following is called the Adam's apple?
thyroid cartilage
the structure which closes off the larynx is the
epiglottis
the greater the pressure of air against the vocal cords,
the louder the sound
false vocal cords
Mucosal folds superior to the true vocal cords, Have no part in sound production
which of the following describes a correct order of structures in the respiratory system
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
the C-shaped rings that provide support for the wall of the trachea are made of
hyaline cartilage
Histamine
causes bronchiole constriction
Epinephrine
causes bronchiole dilation
the pain of pleurisy is caused by
friction between the swollen membranes
which of the following is NOT a structure associated with the lungs
endocardium
the exchange of gases occurs in the
alveoli
Surfactant is produced by
Surfactant-secreting cells
which of the following divides into alveolar ducts
respiratory bronchioles
for air to enter the lungs during inspiration
the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure
the lungs contain @ ________ alveoli
300 million
the volume of air that can be exhaled after normal exhalation is the
expiratory reserve volume
the volume of air in a normal breath is called
tidal volume
total lung capacity equals
TV+IRV+ERV+RV
gas exchange in the lungs happens by the process of
diffusion
all of the following decrease the efficiency of external respiration EXCEPT
increased alveolar PO2
most O2 in the blood is transported
as oxyhemoglobin
nerve impulses travel from the active inspiratory area to the diaphragm via the
phrenic nerve
@ how much CO2 in the blood is carried as bicarbonate
almost 80%
when stretch receptors in the lungs are activated
expiration will occur, the lungs will deflate, the inspiratory area is inhibited, impulses are sent along the vagus nerve
the basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by the
medulla oblongata
painful or labored breathing is referred to as
dyspnea
a disorder characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls is
emphysema
respiration rates are controlled mainly by the
medulla oblongata & pons and the amount of CO2 in the blood
the vocal cords are located in the
larynx
cartilaginous rings
make the trachea rigid to keep the airway open, make the bronchi rigid to keep them open, are C shaped in the trachea and allow the esophagus to expand behind it, are not found in the esophagus
breathing is controlled by the respiratory center(s) located in the
medulla oblongata & pons
the flap of cartilage that closes off the larynx and prevents food and water from entering the larynx during swallowing is the
epiglottis
which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system
transport of nutrients to tissue
which of the following communicates with the laryngopharynx
larynx, oropharynx, esophagus
which of the following affect the release of O2 from hemoglobin
the following affect the release of O2 - partial pressure of O2, temperature, acidity & exercise, CO2 in the tissue
carbon monoxide
binds to heme in the hemoglobin, binds more strongly than O2 does
smoking can cause
lung cancer, emphysema, smoker's cough and bronchitis, increased mucous
changes in the respiratory system during exercise include all but which of the following
less CO2 is produced
the vital capacity can decrease by as much as ________% by the age of 70
23%
external nares
nostrils
the mucous membrane of the larynx forms _____ pairs of folds
2
t/f the trachea is located lateral to the esophagus
false
t/f tertiary bronchi divide into terminal bronchioles
false
t/f the first step of respiration is external respiration
false
the narrow top portion of the lung is called the
apex
the right lung is divided into how many lobes
three
in order for respiration to occur, the volume of the lung needs to be
increased
name the sections of the nasal cavity and how they are divided
top, middle & bottom by nasal conchae and into right & left sides by the nasal septum
the purpose of the nasal cavity is to
circulate air to warm, cleanse, examine and moisten it
the pressure inside the lungs is the
alveolar pressure
spirogram
the record of pulmonary volumes and capacities
t/f in clinical practice ventilation means inspiration only
false
the transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and body tissues is the function of the
blood
during inspiration, the diaphragm
contracts and drops, expanding thoracic cavity size and decreases its pressure
during expiration
volume decreases and pressure increase forcing air out
if alveolar PCO2 is low, CO2 will
diffuse from the capillary blood into the alveoli
the _______ lung is smaller than the _______ lung due to position of the heart
right lung is smaller than left
parietal pleural membrane lines the thoracic cavity while the _________ pleural membrane covers the lung
visceral pleural membrane
t/f cigarette smoke is the single most preventable cause of death and disability worldwide
true
cancer of the larynx is found almost exclusively in people who do/did what
smoke(d)
hypocania is caused from
voluntary hyperventilation and is very dangerous as the O2 level may drop dangerously low and cause fainting
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
bronchial tree
The bronchi and all their branches that function as passageways between the trachea and the alveoli
pleural membrane
membrane that encloses the lungs within the rib cage
terminal bronchioles
finest conducting branches of respiratory passageways.
Heimlich maneuver
an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea
bronchoscopy
examination of the bronchi with a bronchoscope
when the diaphragm contracts it
flattens
the term applied to normal quiet breathing is
eupnea
the phospholipids produced by the alveolar cells are called
surfactant
the total volume of air taken in during one minute is called the
minute volume of respiration
the air that remains in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled is the
residual volume
the sum of residual volume plus expiratory reserve volume is the
functional residual capacity
the _________ area controls the basic rhythm of respiration
medullary rhythmicity
the passive process by which air flows into and out of the lungs is called
ventilation
the protective mechanism that prevents overinflation of the lungs is called
inflation reflex
a slow rate and depth of respiration is called
hypoventilation
the temporary cessation of breathing is known as
apnea
the structure that prevents food from entering the respiratory passages is the
epiglottis
the chemosensitive area is located in the
medulla oblongata
CO2 can be carried by hemoglobin as
carbaminohemoglobin
the immediate increase in ventilation at the onset of exercise is a result of stimulation of the
proprioceptors
rhinitis
an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose (usually associated with nasal discharge)
emphysema
hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls
respiratory distress syndrome
condition that can occur in a premature infant in which the lungs are not matured to the point of manufacturing lecithin, a pulmonary surfactant, resulting in a collapse of the alveoli, which leads to cyanosis and hypoxia
sudden infant death syndrome
completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. The most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life (crib death).
pulmonary embolism
blockage of a branch of pulmonary artery that will stop blood flow to a group of lobules or alveoli.
epistaxis
nosebleed
pulmonary edema
fluid accumulation in the interstitial spaces and alveoli of the lungs
hemoptysis
spitting up blood from the respiratory tract
asphyxia
a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis
dyspnea
difficult or labored respiration
orthopnea
form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect