62 terms

A&P Chapter 13 - The Endocrine System

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what system works closely with the endocrine system
nervous system
adrenals, parathyroid glands, pineal gland and pituitary glands are what kind of glands
endocrine
what organs contain hormone producing cells
stomach, liver, skin
cAMP
a second messenger in the action of many water-soluble hormones such as peptides
hormones that bind to receptors within the target cells are
lipid soluble
PTH & calcitonin
hormones that regulate blood Ca levels
oxytocin
under certain circumstances is regulated by positive feedback
the infundibulum attaches the pituitary gland to
the hypothalmus
LH
stimulates testosterone production by the testes
epinephrine
hormone released in response to a nerve impulse
HGH, FSH, ACT & prolactin
hormones of the anterior pituitary
MSH
hormone which effects skin pigment
GH
release in response to hypoglycemia
IGH is released in response to
HGH
hormone produced by neurosecretory cells
antidiuretic hormone
hypothalmus
produces antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
oxytocin
hormone released in large quantities just before childbirth
controls the production and release of glucocoticoids
ACTH
calcitonin is a hormone of the
thyroid gland
follicular cells produce
thyroxine
hormone released in response to low blood Ca levels is
parathyroid hormone
what does calcitonin inhibit the action of
osteoclasts
mineralcorticoids
are produced in the adrenal cortex, are steroid hormone and help regulate the homeostasis of Na & P
glucocorticoids are steroid hormones produced by
adrenal gland
adrenal medulla
endocrine gland directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system
fight or flight
epinephrine & norepinephrine
pancreas
classified as an endocrine and an exocrine gland
beta cells secrete
insulin
glucogon
accelerates the conversion of glycogen into glucose
progesterone and estrogen
develop and maintenance of female sex characteristics
FSH secretion is inhibited by
inhibin
melatonin is a hormone of the
pineal gland
prostoglandins
act as local hormones, help induce inflammation, are important in fat metabolism
the resistance reaction
he second stage of the stress response
gigantism
oversecretion of hGH during childhood
diabetes insipidus
insufficient ADH
Cushing's syndrome
oversecretion of glucocorticoids
decline in the number of pancreatic beta cells is characteristic for
type 1 diabetes
target cells
respond to a particular hormone
hormone secretion is controlled by what
nerve impulses, circulating chemicals, releasing hormones, inhibiting hormones
what does ACTH control
activities of the adrenal cortex
growth hormone does what
stimulates cells to grow and divide
where is glucagon produced
in the alpha cells of the pancreas
insulin is secreted by the pancreas after a meal to
decrease the concentration of blood glucose
an adult who over secretes GH doesn't grow taller. Why
epiphyseal plates are closed in adults
thyroxine is not produced in large amounts because
under normal circumstances it is under negative feedback control
what systems are responsible for fight or flight response
hypothalmus, sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medullae
when does thyroid hormone secretion slow down
as we age
insulin resistance
unresponsiveness of cells to the effect of insulin, reducing their ability to absorb glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia
why is abdominal fat riskier than other adipose tissue
fat cells in the abdomen are more metabolically active and responsive to hormones
type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol and abdominal fat are categorized as
metabolic syndrome
the nervous system and endocrine system regulate
homeostasis
steroid hormones are the derivatives of cholesterol
hormone secretion is primarily regulated by negative feedback
some glands produce hormones in response to signals from the
autonomic nervous system
hormones from the hypothalmus control the release of what
hGH from the anterior pituitary
another term for Vasopressin is
antidiuretic hormone
alcohol inhibits ADH and increases what
urine output
aldosterone secretion is controlled by
renin-angiotensin pathway
stressor
any stimulus that produces a stress response
which gland is largest when we are infants and is replaced by connective and adipose tissue as we age
the thymus gland
exhaustion may occur
if the resistance stage of stress response fails to combat the stressor
pheochromocytoma
benign tumor of the adrenal medulla