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52 terms

Ch.17 Biology Test

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Classification
Grouping of objects or information based on similarites.
Taxonomy
Branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics.
Binomial Nomenclature
Two word system developed by Carolous Linnaeus to name species, first word identifies the genus of the organism, the second word is often a descriptive word that describes a characteristic of the organism.
Genus
First word of a two part scientific name used to identify a group of similar species.
Family
Next large taxon in the biological classification system, consists of a group of similar genera.
Order
Taxon of similar families.
Class
Taxon of similar orders.
Phylum
Taxon of similar classes.
Division
Taxonomic grouping of similar classes.
Kingdom
Taxonomic grouping of similar phyla or divisions.
Eubacteria
Group of prokaryotes with strong cell walls and a variety of structures.
Protist
Eukaryote that lacks complex organ systems and lives in most environments.
Fungus
Group of unicellular or mulitcellular heterotrophic eukaryotes that do not move from place to place.
Aristole classified life into 2 groups, plants and animals. The plants were divided into 3 sub groups, (herbs,shrubs,trees). Animals were grouped according to their habitat and physical differences. The problem with this system was it did not group organisms into their evolutionary history.
How did Aristole classify life? What was the problem with his system?
Scientist should use scientific names because common names can be misleading due to organims having multiple names. One type of species can live all over the world and can have several different names, so using a scientific name keeps it easier to classify. Scientific names dont change and show relationships and classification.
Why is it better for scientist to use the scientific names of organisms rather than their common names?
Taxomony is important to scientist because it groups and names organisms based on studies of their different characteristics. Helps to study the relationships between living and extinct species.
Why is taxomony important to scientist?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
List the taxa in order from largest to smallest.
Kingdom
Group of related phyla.
Cladistics
Classification system based on phylogeny.
Class
Group of related orders.
Phylogeny
Evolutionary history of species.
Family
Group of related genera.
Genus
Group of related species.
Phylum
Group of related classes.
Order
Group of related families.
Taxomony
The branch of biology that groups and names organisms.
Phylum
A group of related classes of plants is a.
Fungus
A heterotrophic eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in the environment is a.
Classification
The placing of information or objects into groups based on similarities is.
Binomial nomenclature
The system for identifying organisms that uses two words to name the species is.
Eubacteria
Prokaryotes that live in most habitats are.
Their habitat and physical differences
In Aristoles system of classification, animals were classified on the basis of ____________________.
Closely
The greater the number of taxa two organisms have in common, the __________________ related they are.
Species
Organisms that are similar in structure and form and successfully interbreed belong to the same ___________.
Genus
A phylum is related to a class as a family is related to an ____________.
Genus name
In the scientific name of the white oak, Quercus alba, Quercus is the __________________.
Less
Two groups of organisms that are farther from each other on a cladogram share __________ derived traits than groups that are closer to each other.
Begin farther
In a fanlike diagram, groups represented by rays that _______________ to the edge of the fan evolved more recently.
Phylogeny
When organims are classified within the same group, it can be assumed that they have a common ______________.
Eubacteria
Escherichia coli, a type of bacterium that lives in the small intestine, is classified in the Kingdom ______________.
Structure
Linnaeus used similarities in ___________ to determine relationships amoung organisms.
Aristoles system did not group organisms according to their evolutionary system. (wasn't specific enough, had 2 big groups.)
What was one shortcoming (problem) with Aristole's classification system?
One advantage for using scientific name is throughtout the world one organism could have several differnet names. A common name can be misleading, (ex: sea horse.) Scientific name stays the same (latin). And you can understand it despite your language.
What are 2 advantages for using scientific names for organisms?
They are distinguished by cell structures and methods of obtaining energy. The study of relationships amoung the living and extinct species.
On what basis are members of one kingdom distinguished from those of another kingdom?
1. Structural Similarities: species that share similar structures, that probably have a common ancestor. 2. Breeding behavior: species wont mate with other organisms due to how they act or look.
3. Geographical distribution: location of a species on earth helps them determine their relationships with other species.
4. Chromosomal Comparisions: Both the number and structure of of chromosomes provide evidence for relationships.
5. Biochemistry: closely related species with similar DNA structures.
Describe 3 ways that scientists determine whether or not 2 organisms are closely related.
Kingdom: Eubacteria, Singled celled, prokaryotes, mostly heterotrophs, asexual, live in most habitats inhabitated by Archaebacteria. (live with plants and animals.
Desribe the kingdom. 1
Kingdom: Archaebacteria, single celled, prokaryotes, heterotrophs, asexual, live in extreme environments.
Desribe the kingdom. 2
Kingdom: Protists, multi cellular or single celled, eukaryotes, some are autotrophs others are heterotrophs, asexual and sexual, live in very moist environments, (live in water)
Desribe the kingdom. 3
Kingdom: Fungi, multi cellular or singled celled, eukaryotes, heterotrophs, sexual or asexual, live in moist environments.
Desribe the kingdom. 4
Kingdom: Plants, multi cellular, eukaryotes, autotrophs, mostly sexual, live in places that have soil, appropriate temperatures, water
Desribe the kingdom. 5
Kingdom: Animals, multi cellular, eukaryotes, heterotrophs, mostly sexual, live in any environment with food, oxygen, or water. But DO NOT live in extreme environments.
Desribe the kingdom. 6
Aristole classified life into 2 groups plants and animals. Plants were divided into 3 subgroups (herbs, shrubs, and trees). Animals were grouped according to their habitats and physical differenes. Linnaeu's system was used to identify species. The first word identifies the genus of the organism. The second word describes the characteristic of the organism. (much more specific and relied on body stucture.) Both trying to attempt to catorgize/ group organisms.
Compare and Contrast Aristole's System of Classifying with Linnaeu's system.