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41 terms

Surgery 2-lecture unit 3 Mammary glands

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What sex do mammary tumors mostly affect?
female
What breed of cat has increased risk of malignant tumors?
siamese
What breed of cat has increased risk of benign tumors
Persians
What age does spaying not affect cats to have mammary tumors?
>2 yrs = no benefit
what percentage is malignant tumors in cats? what type?
>85% usually adenocarcinoma
What percentage metastasize to lungs, pleura, and lymph nodes in cats?
>60%
Is a FNA recommended to do in cat mammary tumors?
no
What is usually removed with the tumor in cats?
ipsilateral inguinal LNs
What is the local recurrence rate in cats? (female vs male)
female: >50%
Male: >45%
What is the size prognosis of tumors and survival rate if untreated in cats?
>3cm =4-6 mo survival rate
<2cm = >3yrs survival rate
When should you spay dogs to reduce the risk of mammary tumors to almost 0?
before their first heat
at what age does the risk increase to 7x of not spaying dogs?
spaying after 2 years
What can also decrease the risk of mammary tumors in dogs?
lean body weight at 9-12 months
What diagnostic tests need to be done in dogs?
thoracic rads
abdominal ultrasound
How are benign tumors cured in dogs?
excisional biopy method
What size of tumors have a better prognosis in dogs?
<3cm tumor
What are the different types of tumors in dogs?
adenocarcinomas (better outcome)
sarcomas
malignant mixed tumors
What things can you educate clients about to reduce mammary tumors?
spay early! before first heat
examine regularily
present promptly if even a small lump is noticed(decreases cost)
What are the different types of surgeries that can be done to remove mammary tumors?
lumpectomy
simple mastectomy
regional mastectomy
unilateral mastectomy
radical mastectomy
Bilateral mastectomy
What part is lumpectomy taking?
-with 1 cm margins (partial mammectomy)
-<5mm mass, encapsulated, noninvasive, periphery of gland
-small masses-teat will be lost-gland still produces milk but no where for it to go.
what part is simple mastectomy taking?
central gland area or majority of gland
What part is regional mastectomy taking?
involved in adjacent glands
tumor between glands or multiple masses
What part is unilateral mastectomy taking?
whole strip removed on one side
What part is radical mastectomy taking?
lymph nodes removed(inguinal and axillary)
What part is bilateral taking?
done is stages to allow skin closure(avoid graphing)
How many pairs of mammary glands do dogs and cats have?
dogs: 5 pairs
cats: 4 pairs
What is used for perioperative management
-Antibiotics(ulcerated, debilitated patients, contaminated)
-fluids
-generous clip-perhaps entire ventrum
-analgesia
-bandage to support wound/compress dead space/absorb fluid
-drain-remove 3-5 days
When should you reevaluate for local recurrence and metastasis?
every 4-6 months
What is a hernia?
an abnormal protrusion of tissue through structures that normally contain it
What is a reducible hernia?
can be poked back in
What is an adherent hernia?
fibrotic, scarred
-no danger
-cosmetic concern
-not reducible
What is a congenital hernia?
umbilical
Breed predisposition - basenjis, westHWTerr
Mostly intact males
relatively common in pigs
What is a traumatic/aquired hernia?
damage done
-mostly intact females
-round ligament(like males)
How does age affect what type of hernia?
usually umbilical in young
How does sex affect type of hernia?
Scrotal can only be in males
umbilical hernias
almost always congenital
-failure of umbilicus to close
-not due to chewing or cutting the umbilicus too closely
-most are not clinical problems(small-omental fat-reducible)
-often fixed incidently at surgery - check
How is an umbilical hernia repaired?
open skin carefully
-open hernial sac
-replace contents
-resect(cut off) sac
-suture
perineal hernias
-atrophy of muscles of pelvic diaphragm
-abdominal contents herniate into ischiorectal fossa
-can trap bladder
-developed from straining
What sex do perineal hernias affect
-middle-aged intact males most common
-enlarged prostate gland creates pressure
Diaphragmatic hernias
-Abdominal contents enter thorax through a hole in the diaphragm
-congenital(cant breath when chest open(no diaphragm) or traumatic(HBC)
-can go undiagnosed for a long time(chest rads recommended)
-Dyspnea/ pleural effusion (abdominal contents in thorax, "dog sitting")
-traumatic abdominal hernias (cats)
Abdominal hernia
abdominal contents through muscle
-closed(palpate) or open (see guts)