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vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)










lymph node


lymph, lymph tissue


bone marrow

phleb/o, ven/o







thymus gland

valv/o, valvul/o





yellowish, fatty plaque




electricity, electrical activity


deficiency, blockage








pertaining to




instrument used to record; record




abnormal reduction in number





hardening of the arteries


hardening of fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall)


ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall


chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle

angina pectoris

any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern


sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

cardiac arrest

acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity

cardiac tamponade

inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen

congestive heart failure (CHF)

a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis (also called heart failure [HF])

coronary artery disease (CAD)

obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. _______ _______ can lead to acute myocardial infarction.

coronary occlusion

condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. most often occurs in the lower extremities. a clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure

hypertensive heart disease (HHD)

pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease

intermittent claudication

a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever

mitral valve stenosis

death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called a heart attack)

myocardial infarction (MI)

disease of the arteries, other than those of the heart and brain, that affects blood circulation, such as atherosclerosis and Raynaud disease. the most common symptom of peripheral atherosclerosis is intermittent claudication

peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever

rheumatic heart disease

distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities

varicose veins

reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. anemia may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells


blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in circulation

embolus (pl. emboli)

inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII


malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow


malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes

Hodgkin disease

an acute infection caused by the EpsteinBarr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. the disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva

infectious mononucleosis

excision of fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter)


excision within the artery (excision of plaque from the arterial wall). this procedure is usually named for the artery to be cleaned out, such as carotid ________, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery


battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart

cardiac pacemaker

surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

a supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy

coronary stent

surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction

femoropopliteal bypass

a device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. if life-threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm

implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD)

an injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots in coronary (blood) vessels

intracoronary thrombolytic therapy

procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. inflation of the balloon compresses, the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the inner diameter of the blood vessel, which allows the blood to circulate more freely (also called balloon angioplasty)

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

a syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells

bone marrow aspiration

a needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells

bone marrow biopsy

infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia

bone marrow transplant

a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities

Doppler ultrasound

a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning and three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising. echocardiography is fast becoming the preferred choice of testing over electrocardiography

exercise stress test

an examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels. a catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressures and inject a contrast medium, enabling the visualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers; used most frequently to evaluate chest pain and coronary artery disease (also called coronary angiopathy)

cardiac catheterization

hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope


pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls. a blood pressure measurement written as systolic pressure (120) and diastolic pressure (80) is commonly recorded as 120/80

blood pressure (BP)

tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath


the number of times per minute the heartbeat is felt on the arterial wall. the pulse rate is commonly felt over the radial artery; however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral and carotid arteries


device used for measuring blood pressure


a blood test used to measure the amount of lipids in a sample of blood. this test is used to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to monitor therapy of existing disease. results provide levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides

lipid profile

basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number and morphology (size and shape), leukocyte count, and white blood cell differential (types of white blood cells) and platelet count. the test is automated, thus done easily and rapidly, and provides a tremendous amount of information about the blood

complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff)

a blood test to measure the volume and number of red blood cells. it is used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients

hematocrit (HCT)

blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells

hemoglobin (Hgb)

application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm


phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (the bottom number of a blood pressure reading)


blood pressure that is above normal (greater than 140/90)


blood pressure that is below normal (less than 90/60)


fats and fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body and are an important constituent of cell structure


space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel


to close tightly, to block


phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (the top number of a blood pressure reading)


agent that slows the clotting process


abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood


rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding






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