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89 terms

Medical Terminology Chapter 10

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angi/o
vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
atri/o
atrium
cardi/o
heart
lymphaden/o
lymph node
lymph/o
lymph, lymph tissue
myel/o
bone marrow
phleb/o, ven/o
vein
plasm/o
plasma
splen/o
spleen
thym/o
thymus gland
valv/o, valvul/o
valve
ventricul/o
ventricle
ather/o
yellowish, fatty plaque
ech/o
sound
electr/o
electricity, electrical activity
isch/o
deficiency, blockage
therm/o
heat
thromb/o
clot
brady-
slow
-ac
pertaining to
-apheresis
removal
-graph
instrument used to record; record
-odynia
pain
-penia
abnormal reduction in number
-poiesis
formation
-sclerosis
hardening
hardening of the arteries
arteriosclerosis
hardening of fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall)
atherosclerosis
ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
aneurysm
chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle
angina pectoris
any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern
arrhythmia
sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
cardiac arrest
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
cardiac tamponade
inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen
congestive heart failure (CHF)
a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis (also called heart failure [HF])
coronary artery disease (CAD)
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. _______ _______ can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
coronary occlusion
condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. most often occurs in the lower extremities. a clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure
hypertensive heart disease (HHD)
pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease
intermittent claudication
a narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever
mitral valve stenosis
death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called a heart attack)
myocardial infarction (MI)
disease of the arteries, other than those of the heart and brain, that affects blood circulation, such as atherosclerosis and Raynaud disease. the most common symptom of peripheral atherosclerosis is intermittent claudication
peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
rheumatic heart disease
distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities
varicose veins
reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. anemia may be caused by blood loss or decrease in the production or increase in the destruction of red blood cells
anemia
blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in circulation
embolus (pl. emboli)
inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII
hemophilia
malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
leukemia
malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
Hodgkin disease
an acute infection caused by the EpsteinBarr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. the disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva
infectious mononucleosis
excision of fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter)
atherectomy
excision within the artery (excision of plaque from the arterial wall). this procedure is usually named for the artery to be cleaned out, such as carotid ________, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery
endarterectomy
battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart
cardiac pacemaker
surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
a supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy
coronary stent
surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
femoropopliteal bypass
a device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. if life-threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm
implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD)
an injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots in coronary (blood) vessels
intracoronary thrombolytic therapy
procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. inflation of the balloon compresses, the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the inner diameter of the blood vessel, which allows the blood to circulate more freely (also called balloon angioplasty)
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
a syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells
bone marrow aspiration
a needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells
bone marrow biopsy
infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia
bone marrow transplant
a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
Doppler ultrasound
a study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning and three types of tests performed to measure cardiac function while exercising. echocardiography is fast becoming the preferred choice of testing over electrocardiography
exercise stress test
an examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels. a catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressures and inject a contrast medium, enabling the visualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers; used most frequently to evaluate chest pain and coronary artery disease (also called coronary angiopathy)
cardiac catheterization
hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope
auscultation
pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls. a blood pressure measurement written as systolic pressure (120) and diastolic pressure (80) is commonly recorded as 120/80
blood pressure (BP)
tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath
percussion
the number of times per minute the heartbeat is felt on the arterial wall. the pulse rate is commonly felt over the radial artery; however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral and carotid arteries
pulse
device used for measuring blood pressure
sphygomamanometer
a blood test used to measure the amount of lipids in a sample of blood. this test is used to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to monitor therapy of existing disease. results provide levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotien (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides
lipid profile
basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number and morphology (size and shape), leukocyte count, and white blood cell differential (types of white blood cells) and platelet count. the test is automated, thus done easily and rapidly, and provides a tremendous amount of information about the blood
complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff)
a blood test to measure the volume and number of red blood cells. it is used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients
hematocrit (HCT)
blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells
hemoglobin (Hgb)
application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
defibrillation
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions (the bottom number of a blood pressure reading)
diastole
blood pressure that is above normal (greater than 140/90)
hypertension
blood pressure that is below normal (less than 90/60)
hypotension
fats and fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body and are an important constituent of cell structure
lipids
space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel
lumen
to close tightly, to block
occlude
phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract (the top number of a blood pressure reading)
systole
agent that slows the clotting process
anticoagulant
abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
dyscrasia
rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding
hemorrhage
ECG, EKG
electrocardiogram
ECHO
echocardiogram