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Aesthetic appeal

Tap consumers' affective reactions by going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality.

Affective component

Feelings or emotional reactions to an object.

Ambivalent attitude

_____ attitude, involves holding mixed beliefs and/or feelings about an attitude object.


An enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment.

Attribute framing

Where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame. Beef is 20% fat (neg) or 80% lean (positive)

Behavioral component

One's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity.

Benefit segmentation

Segmenting consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes.

Cognitive component

Consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object.

Comparative ads

Directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands.

Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)

A theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement.

Emotional ads

Designed primarily to elicit a positive affective response rather than provide information or arguments.

Fear appeals

The threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered.

Goal framing

Where "the message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act."

Humorous appeals

Ads built around humor which appear to increase attention to and liking of the ad.

Mere exposure

The idea that simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive.

Message framing

Presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative or loss terms (negative framing).

Multiattribute attitude model

Based on the logic that because all of the components of an attitude are generally consistent, the more favorable the overall attitude is.

One-sided messages

Messages where the benefits of a particular product are presented without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess or any advantages a competitor might have.

Source credibility

Based on two basic dimensions, trustworthiness and expertise, it occurs when the target market views the source of the
message as highly credible.


Can be animated animals, people, products, or other objects.


A company providing financial support for an event.

Testimonial ad

A person, generally a typical member of the target market, recounts his or her successful use of the product, service, or

Two-sided message

Messages that provide good and bad points of a particular product.

Utilitarian appeals

Involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market.

Value-expressive appeals

Attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user.


self-assessment manikin provides visual representations of 232 emotional adjectives underlying PAD.

Knowledge function

what people think about something is often more important than something's actual traits

Utilitarian function

people like things that are rewarding, if you promise rewards in ads, they better come through

Ego-defensive function

people form attitudes to defend egos and self images against threats


Change the Cognitive Component
Change the Affective Component
Change the Behavioral Component

Change the Cognitive Component

use... to change ....:
Change beliefs
Shift importance
Add beliefs
Change ideal

Change the Affective Component

use... to change ....:
Classical conditioning
Affect toward the Ad or web site
Mere exposure

Change the Behavioral Component

use... to change ....: operant conditioning (shaping)

Peripheral Cues (PCs)

influence persuasion under LOW involvement but not HIGH involvement (models, music)

Central Cues (CCs)

influence persuasion under HIGH involvement but not LOW involvement (facts)

Cue Relevance

• Example: An attractive model (and her hair) may be decision irrelevant (PC) in an ad for a car, but decision relevant (CC) in an ad for shampoo.
• In this case, the attractive model would influence persuasion under high involvement for shampoos but not for cars.

Source Characteristics

represents "who" delivers the message

Appeal Characteristics

Represents "how" the message is communicated

Message Structure Characteristics

Represents "how" the message is presented

Nonverbal components

___________components can influence attitudes through affect, cognition, or both.
Emotional ads often rely primarily or exclusively on nonverbal content to drive emotional responses. These can include:
• pictures
• music
• surrealism

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