40 terms

Chapter 11 Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes

Aesthetic appeal
Tap consumers' affective reactions by going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality.
Affective component
Feelings or emotional reactions to an object.
Ambivalent attitude
_____ attitude, involves holding mixed beliefs and/or feelings about an attitude object.
An enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment.
Attribute framing
Where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame. Beef is 20% fat (neg) or 80% lean (positive)
Behavioral component
One's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity.
Benefit segmentation
Segmenting consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes.
Cognitive component
Consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object.
Comparative ads
Directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands.
Elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
A theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement.
Emotional ads
Designed primarily to elicit a positive affective response rather than provide information or arguments.
Fear appeals
The threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered.
Goal framing
Where "the message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act."
Humorous appeals
Ads built around humor which appear to increase attention to and liking of the ad.
Mere exposure
The idea that simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive.
Message framing
Presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative or loss terms (negative framing).
Multiattribute attitude model
Based on the logic that because all of the components of an attitude are generally consistent, the more favorable the overall attitude is.
One-sided messages
Messages where the benefits of a particular product are presented without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess or any advantages a competitor might have.
Source credibility
Based on two basic dimensions, trustworthiness and expertise, it occurs when the target market views the source of the
message as highly credible.
Can be animated animals, people, products, or other objects.
A company providing financial support for an event.
Testimonial ad
A person, generally a typical member of the target market, recounts his or her successful use of the product, service, or
Two-sided message
Messages that provide good and bad points of a particular product.
Utilitarian appeals
Involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market.
Value-expressive appeals
Attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user.
self-assessment manikin provides visual representations of 232 emotional adjectives underlying PAD.
Knowledge function
what people think about something is often more important than something's actual traits
Utilitarian function
people like things that are rewarding, if you promise rewards in ads, they better come through
Ego-defensive function
people form attitudes to defend egos and self images against threats
Change the Cognitive Component
Change the Affective Component
Change the Behavioral Component
Change the Cognitive Component
use... to change ....:
Change beliefs
Shift importance
Add beliefs
Change ideal
Change the Affective Component
use... to change ....:
Classical conditioning
Affect toward the Ad or web site
Mere exposure
Change the Behavioral Component
use... to change ....: operant conditioning (shaping)
Peripheral Cues (PCs)
influence persuasion under LOW involvement but not HIGH involvement (models, music)
Central Cues (CCs)
influence persuasion under HIGH involvement but not LOW involvement (facts)
Cue Relevance
• Example: An attractive model (and her hair) may be decision irrelevant (PC) in an ad for a car, but decision relevant (CC) in an ad for shampoo.
• In this case, the attractive model would influence persuasion under high involvement for shampoos but not for cars.
Source Characteristics
represents "who" delivers the message
Appeal Characteristics
Represents "how" the message is communicated
Message Structure Characteristics
Represents "how" the message is presented
Nonverbal components
___________components can influence attitudes through affect, cognition, or both.
Emotional ads often rely primarily or exclusively on nonverbal content to drive emotional responses. These can include:
• pictures
• music
• surrealism