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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
US HIST Survey to 1877 Exam 1 Rivas TCU
Terms in this set (48)
Chesapeake (Virginia) to New England area
first tribe that the europeans came to
Elizabeth I who took the throne after her older sister Mary I (Bloody Mary, made England Catholic) decided that the Church of England would always be a protestant church and that it would not switch back and forth between protestant and catholic
an English coloniser who was the first proprietor of the Maryland colony. He received the proprietorship that was intended for his father, George Calvert, the 1st Lord Baltimore, who died shortly before it was granted.
he was good friends with the king
wanted to create a safe space for catholics
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.
allowed them to resist and fight back when europeans came
mohawk, oneida, cayuga, seneca, and onondaga
relates to catholics
the 7 sacraments of the catholic faith
participating in these sacraments means you will be given a saving grace
baptism, eucharist, confirmation, reconciliation, anointing of the sick, marriage, holy orders
The name the English settlers gave the inhabited land in Jamestown
named after the native word for both his tribe and his title of paramount chief
man named smith was threatened with execution by Powhatan only to be saved by Pocahontas
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas, Africa, and Europe following Columbus's voyages.
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
created after John calvin
believed in predestination: predetermined from god whether you will go to hell or heaven
3 main points: (1) God's Providence, (2) God's inscrutable will (something you don't understand in regard to his path for you), (3) Man's total depravity (no free will)
"city on a hill"
John Winthrop wanted Massachusetts Bay Colony to be a Puritan model society based on Christian principles. Puritans tried to live perfect lives. 1629, "puritan great migration"
discovered that tobacco could be grown within virginia in 1613 which saved the Virginia company and lead to reorganization 1
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought and regulating the economies of the colonies to benefit the mother country
the most power out of the 3 native groups in central America
located in Mexico city
participated in human sacrifices
the capital was tenochtitlan
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
native slaves who would mine silver and gold
there was a lot of violence against the slaves
de los casas wrote a report to spain about the brutal violence experienced
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south. He was seen as a threat to puritan society
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay. Used to transport goods across Asia
Samarkand--was the most popular city, would tax the travelers on caravans
goods traded: spices, silk, horses, indigo, slaves
a clear distinction in law and custom that all members of one race occupy a lower social status than all members of another race
race based class created and led to societal racism
Protestant whose views and opinions differed from those of the Church of England
related to the protestant toleration, all protestant tolerated each other as long as they weren't Catholic
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Central America was included, did not just move in one direction
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a 7 years, when/if they finished their term they were promised land of their own to start their own farm/plantation
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
what it showed: free enterprise over commonwealth, first class based rebellion
a 15th century European ship capable of long distance travel
what allowed the Portuguese to sail down the coast of africa
had different types of sails that could allow you to sail against the wind
Society of Friends
most radical of the protestant groups--true equality, no ministers
if you felt the lord speak to you, then you spoke
would interrupt other religions
services considered a nuisance
quaker colony: Pennsylvania
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and gets to say what goes on in the colony or gets benefits, ex Virginia Company
the social system in England
those who figured out how to be successful will rise in the hierarchy
you have to play your role in the social system
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
a group of Indians who the carolinians befriended as they came to what is now South Carolina, and became so close with this native group that the yamasee began living along the borders of Carolina to protect them from any harm. Carolinians were taking advantage of their protection and kindness and not paying what they owed, so they attacked Carolina and Carolina held their own and defeated the yamasee's who them became practically extinct.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne because they believed he was a secret catholic and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange in order to keep the religious peace
Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference besides the necessary amount to protect public interest and keep the national economy in balance
Spanish conquerors of the Native American lands, most notably the Aztec and Inca empires.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
A system where planter organized their slaves into gangs, supervised them closely, and had them work in the fields all day. Primarily used on tobacco plantations.
when the use of the African slave trade was to get people to plant sugar for them
led to the plantation and racial slavery
all about the sugar
Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.
a period when normal government is suspended, especially between successive reigns or regimes.
Charles I(KING) - Oliver Cromwell(DICTATOR)
A system of slave labor under which a slave had to complete a specific assignment each day. After they finished, their time was their own. Used primarily on rice plantations.
A usually black or banded, hard volcanic glass that displays shiny, curved surfaces when fractured and is formed by rapid cooling of lava
used in early civilizations for manufacturing tools and ceremonial objects
When the African Americans in the Carolinas has the opportunity to create a new culture for themselves thanks to the task system was well as the absentee and the black majority in Carolina
What do we know about Native Americans and their history prior to the arrival of Europeans? How do we know these things? Are there common misperceptions about Pre-Columbian Native Americans? If so, what are they?
We can use artifacts or fossils to see how life was for them and how they used certain objects. We can also see if they were a hunter/gatherer group because of this, because they would not be sedentary and would travel in small groups so they don't use all of the natural resources in one area. We know that they domesticated the dog in order to help them hunt and work, as well as they set controlled fires in order to help re-fertilize the soil and help burn off excess trees or plants so that a wildfire would not occur. We know that some groups were sedentary and others weren't based off of how much food they could provide for themselves. Some common misperceptions of the native Americans would be that they were uncivilized and acted upon a moments notice, savages, which would be incorrect.
What led Europeans to take to the sea in the 15th century? What factors enabled them to succeed? What were the long term, global consequences of their successes?
In the 15th century, the europeans originally wanted to go to china and India for trade in the Silk Road. Columbus arrived in American thinking he had found a shortcut to Asia by traveling across the sea instead of going south around Africa, which he did not. He was able to do this with compasses, telescopes, royal investment, caravels, and maps(mercator projection). A long term consequence that came with this was the discovery of North America and also bad relations with the Native Americans.
Where did the plantation system of agriculture come from, and how did it ultimately arrive in the American South?
The plantation system started when Spain went after the Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas. They made them into encomienda slaves to mine silver and gold which was done in the Caribbean. If there was no gold or silver on an island, they would use that island to cultivate crops such as sugar, cotton, tobacco. The plantations then started to become a thing with the triangular trade and when John Rolfe discovered that tobacco could be grown in Virginia on their own garden plots to sell and make money, and this saved the virginia company.
Where did societal racism in North America come from, and was it inevitable? What events led to the development of racial slavery and societal racism?
societal racism is a clear distinction in law and custom that all members of one race serve a higher status than another race. It started when they no longer wanted indentured servants because the malaria crisis wasn't killing off all of the servants anymore, meaning, that they were living to the end of their terms, and that the owners were going to have to give them land. So the plantation owners decided to move more towards slavery, and purchasing African American slaves for their whole lives and their future generations to come, so it was a better investment. Race based class was created by this and this led to societal racism. In my opinion, it shouldn't have been inevitable, but people are greedy with their money and land so they do not want to give that up.
What was the protestant reformation about, and what were its consequences for europeans? for England? for colonization?
Martin Luther and his 95 theses began the protestant reformation, basically, the reformation was about the disagreement about certain things the Catholic Church pursued that others found unethical, sacramentalism was one of them. A consequence for europeans was that lutherism and calvinism were created, for England, the whole church became protestant because Henry VIII wanted a divorce, and for colonization, everyone wanted to leave England, a where there was religious issues on monarch persecuting a certain religion.
What is the main difference between a puritan and a separatist? What did they have in common?
The main difference between a puritan and a separatist is that puritans wanted to "purify" the Catholic Church, and separatists wanted to completely separate from the church, however both are a branch of calvinism.
What did puritans believe, and how did those beliefs affect their "errand into the wilderness" of North America? What happened to the towns and people of Massachusetts Bay Colony over the course of the 17th century?
They believe in predestination and a spiritual patriarchy and they left because of persecution in England. Their mission was an errand into the wilderness to set an example for other puritans and set up a model town for others to view. They wanted conformity, for everyone to believe in the same thing. Church members would establish towns in Massachusetts bay.
What is a commonwealth, and how did commonwealth systems fare in the New World? If they succeeded, why? If they tended to fail, what factors contributed to their collapse?
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