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Chemistry Chapter 1-3 review
Terms in this set (23)
Law of Conservation of Mass
Mass is neither created or destroyed during a chemical reaction
Law of Definite Proportions
A chemical compound that contains the same amount of elements in exactly the same proportions by mass
Dalton's five part theroy
1. All matter is composed of atoms
2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties
3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
4. Atoms of different elements combine in whole number ratios to form chemical compounds.
5. In chemical reactions atoms are combined, separtely, or rearranged.
Parts of Dalton's Theroy that were incorrect.
1. Atoms can have different masses and be the same element because you can have isotopes that can have more neutrons than protons.
2. Atoms are divisible because they can break into smaller particles.
Electron was discovered during what experiment
Cathode ray experiment
The information learned about the electron led to what two conclusions about the structure of an atom?
1. Atoms are electrically neutral, they must contain a positive charge to balance the negative electrons.
2. Because electrons have so much less mass than atoms, atoms must contain other particles that account for most of their mass.
Explain Rutherford's alpha particle experiment. What two conclusions did Rutherford make about the structure of the nucleus of an atom?
shot with high energy A+ particles at gold foil most of the A+ particles passed straight through the foil , while, 1/8000 were reflected back. This tells us that the nucleus has a positive charge and that the nucleus accounts for a small part of the atom
Which has a larger mass a proton or a neutron?
Define Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Why can we use the atomic number of an element to determine the number of electrons found in a particular element?
Because the number of protons and electrons are equal.
Define mass number and explain how to find it?
Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Is the Avg. Atomic number rounded to the closest whole number.
Define average atomic mass
The weighted difference of all the naturally occurring isotopes in an atom
An __________ is an atom of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
An isotope for any element
An____________ is equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom with 6 protons.
Atomic mass unit
What is Avagadro's number and what does it represent?
6.022 x 10 /23. The number of particles in a substance.
__________ is the mass of one mole of a pure substance.
Define Intensive and Extensive Property provide examples of each.
Intensive- does not depend on the matter present. EX. melting point, boiling point, density
Extensive- does depend on the amount of matter present. EX. volume , mass
What is the name of the elements in group 18? What do they have that is the same?
Noble gases. They have the same amount of valence electrons
The ability to be hammered into sheets is called______________.
The ability to be drawn into wire is called___________.
Which two elements are liquid at room temp.?
Bromine and Mercury
What do elements in the same group have in common?
They have the same amount of valence electrons.
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