microbiology chapter 1

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what are the two parts of the Cardiovascular System?
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How does angiotensin II effect the cardiovascular system? and what drugs can be used to stop the effect of angiotensin II?-angiotensin II causes -vascoconstriction -increased blood pressure -stimulates the release of aldosterone ANE inhibitors (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) prevent the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I (BP medication). In turn, aldosterone is not made. ACE inhibitor will lower blood pressure.where is atrial natriuretic peptide produced and what hormone does it antagonize? What does ANP do?-produced in the right atrium of the heart -It is an antagonist to aldosterone -Causes decrease in blood pressure and blood volume. -causes vasodilation.describe how fluid is pushed out of capillaries than reabsorbed-at the arterial end it is pushed out by Hydrostatic pressure (filtration). there is blood blood hydrostatic pressure (aka capillary hydrostatic pressure) and hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid. (pressure 10 mm Hg) -at the venous end fluid is taken back up by the capillaries by blood osmotic pressure. it pulls fluid into capillary. two types are capillary osmotic pressure and osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid. (pressure -8mm Hg)what are the causes of edema?-a decrease in plasma proteins due to liver disease, malnutrition, or kidney disease. this lowers the blood osmotice pressure. -obstructed venous return (due to blood clots or cardiac failure) this raises hydrostatic pressure. -increased permeability of capillaries due to infection, inflammation or chemicals. this raises the OP as more proteins leak out into the tissues.describe shock and the symptoms of shock-failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver O2 and nutrients. -symptoms of shock are--- 1.weak, thready pulse 2. cold, clammy, cyanotic 3. increased rate and depth of breathing 4. increased thirst 5. decreased urine output 6. restlessness 7. comahow to repair an aneurysm?clamp artery above and below, excise aneurysm, and suture in a graft.hypotension is systolic pressure below_________100 mm Hghypertension is blood pressure above______________ cause danger and control of hypertension140/90