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Francis Ferdinand

Austria-Hungary's archduke, assasination led to WWI

Total War

when a country devotes all of its resources and popuation to war


the idea that people with same ethnic origins have the right to form their own independent countries


idea that all slavs should support one another


new British battleships, lead to arms race betw GB and Germany

Triple Entente

defensive alliance betb France, GB, and Russia

Schlieffen Plan

General Schlieffen's plann to fight two-front war against France and Russia, failed

War of Attrition

type of war, aim to kill as many opposing soldiers as possible

Home Front

civilian effort towards total war, recycling, rationing, morale, and efficient farming

TNT Poisoning

medical conditioning many women working in munitions factories developed

Twenty-one Demands

list of Japanese demands to China after WWI


the peninsula battle where Turkish troops held off the advance of the Australian and New Zealand forces, perventing Allies from bringing supplies to Russia.

Nicholas II

the last Russian Tsar, abdicated and later murdered


originally local councils in Russia, later became major part of political structure in USSR

Vladimir Lenin

marxist leader, founded Bolshevik party, led communist reolution

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty that ended hostilities betw Russia and Germany. Germany awarded substantial amount of territory.


British ship sunk by German u-boat, incerased US hostility towards German gvt

Treaty of Versailles

the diplomatic agreement that formally ended the war betw the Allies and Germany. Germany got owned

League of Nations

International organization created to keep world peace post WWI. Little power to inforce politics

Mandate System

system to devide German and Ottoman territories outside of Europe. Allowed fronce and GB to expand their colonial empires

lost generation

generation of young people coming of age during and shortly after WWI

Oswald Spengler

author of The Decline of the West. Claimed civilization and culture have the same cycle of growth and decay as humans

Jose Ortega y Gasset

spanish philosopher, worte and essay titled The Revolt of the Masses, attacking democratic gvt

The Uncertainty Principle

Werner Heisenberg's theory stating observation of a physical phenomenon interferes w/ natural behavior of phenomenon being

Sigmund Freud

Austrian physician, founder of psychoanalysis.

Paul Gaugin

post impressionalist pinter, fled europe for central america and Tahiti, blended non westenr ideas with western ideas


painting style popularized by Picasso and Braque, all forms reduced to geometric shapes. Rejection of realism


community of archetects, designers, and pointers to create a style of building and design unique to 20th century

John Maynard Keynes

economist, urged gvts to be active in economy. His theories led to development of gvt funded public works projects

Red Terror

lenin's policy, crush all opposition. 200,000 killed in this campaign

War Communism

provoked by civil war in russia. Soldiers could take anything from anyone if it was deemed useful or necessary in the effort to defeat the wite forces in the Russian civil war

New Economic Plan

Lenin's plan, temporarily restored russian econ in 1920's, let people sell goods in free markets

socialism in one country

stalin's attitude for role of USSR in spereading communism in 1920's. make communism a success in USSR before promoting in other parts of the world (please secure your oxygen mask before assisting others)

five-year plans

s NEP with complete gvt control of economy. Enabled USSR to develop econ strength in many areas


stalin's economic program to increase agricultural production in 1920's &30's. Private ownership of farmland abolished, giant gvt farms set up


wealthy pesant farmers whose land Stalin's collectivization took away.

Great Purge

anyone accused of opposing stalin either killed or imprisoned in a gulag. Enabled stalin to eliminate any percieved rivals


political system with a dictator. First developed in italy under Musolini, and hitler later in germany. Both opposed the spread of communism

Nuremburg Laws

legislation passed in germany soon after hitler came to power. Stripped german jews of citizenship and outlawed mairrage/sex betw German Jews and other Germans (harry potter much?)


night when nazis organized destruction of synagogues and stores owned by jews. Over 100 jews murdered, caused many jews to flee Germany,

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