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30 terms

Chpt 2

STUDY
PLAY
The smallest particle that cannot be subdivided into smaller substances without losing the properties of an element is termed a(an)

atom.
electron.
neutron.
compound.
atom
Protons

are negatively charged.
orbit the nucleus of the atom.
are found in the atomic nucleus.
are the smallest of the subatomic particles
are found in the atomic nucleus.
A(an) ___________ has a characteristic atomic structure and predictable chemical behavior.

neutron
electron
element
compound
element
___________ are forms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons.

Isotopes
Isomers
Compounds
Molecules
Isotopes
The valence of an element determines

the number of electrons in its inner shell.
the number of covalent bonds it can make.
the atomic number.
the number of neutrons and protons in its nucleus.
the number of covalent bonds it can make.
Identify the compound from the following list:

14C
O2
Cl-1
H2O
H2O
A covalent bond

donates electrons to one partner.
transfers electrons from one partner to the other.
occurs between hydrogens of adjacent molecules.
shares electrons between partners
shares electrons between partners
When ionic bonds break and the atoms dissociate into unattached charged particles, this is called

ionization.
polarity.
reduction.
oxidation.
ionization.
Select the decomposition reaction from the equations listed below:

A + B → AB
AB → A + B
A + BC → B + AC
AB + CD → AD + CB
AB → A + B
If a salt were dissolved in a liquid, then the salt would be classified as the

solution.
solute.
solvent.
solid.
solute.
Benzene repels water, therefore benzene is considered to be

amphipathic.
hydrophilic.
hydrophobic.
acidic.
hydrophobic
The molecular weight of NaCl is 58 grams per mole. A lab student dissolved 5.8 grams of NaCl and brought the solution to one liter with water. The solution would have a molarity of

0.1 M.
1.0 M.
5.8 M.
10 M.
0.1M
A pH of 5 would be considered

acidic.
alkaline.
neutral.
basic.
acidic.
_________ is an important molecule in biological systems because it is the building block of many polysaccharides, including starch, cellulose, and glycogen. It is the most common and universally important monosaccharide.

Triglyceride
Glucose
Glycerol
Sucrose
Glucose
Polysaccharides are formed by linking monosaccharides into a macromolecule. What is the most common process that links each subunit together?

complexation reaction
saturation linkage
dehydration synthesis
hydrogen bonding
dehydration synthesis
Identify the functional group that denotes an alcohol.

R-OH
R=R
R-NH2
R-COOH
R-OH
The building blocks of proteins are

monosaccharides.
triglycerides.
amino acids.
nucleotides.
amino acids.
Which of the following would NOT be classified as a lipid?

triglyceride
steroid
wax
RNA
RNA
Membranes are

thin walls around cells
double-layers of phopholipids.
dual layers of amino acids
made up of waxes and sterols.
double-layers of phopholipids.
Organic molecules always contain

hydrogen and oxygen.
oxygen and carbon.
nitrogen and hydrogen.
hydrogen and carbon.
hydrogen and carbon
Amino acids always include the following functional groups EXCEPT

an alpha carbon.
a hydrogen.
an amino group.
a hydroxyl group
a hydroxyl group
What part of the DNA molecule is most exposed to the watery environment in the cell?

the flat, tightly stacked plates of the nucleotide bases
the ionically-charged phosphate groups in the "backbone"
the deoxyribose sugar alcohol groups in the "backbone"
the hydrogen-bonding links between nucleotides
the ionically-charged phosphate groups in the "backbone"
RNA contains the following nitrogenous bases EXCEPT

cytosine
uracil
thyine
adenine
thymine
If DNA were a spiral staircase, the nitrogenous bases would be

the railings.
the wall.
the central support.
the steps.
the steps
The "primary" structure of a protein relates to the

nucleic acid sequence of the DNA.
messenger RNA.
sequence of amino acids.
way it fold
sequence of amino acids
An acid is a compound that releases H+1 ions when dissociating.

True
False
True
When a reaction generates heat, the reaction is termed endergonic.

True
False
False
The phenomenon in which electrons are transferred from molecule to another is termed a redox reaction.

True
False
True
Cholesterol adds strength to the cell membrane in animal cells.

True
False
True
Enzymes are lipids that function as catalysts.

True
False
False