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155 terms

Chapter 7 Bones

Anatomy Test 2
STUDY
PLAY
Cartilage
_____ is the type of connective tissue that forms a cap on the ends of long bones.
All of the above
The knee joint is reinforced by the lateral and medial collateral as well as the cruciate and patellar ligaments.
Calcitonin
The hormone _____ functions to increase the rate of bone deposition.
Vomer bone
Which of the following is NOT a part of the orbit?
Scapula
Which of the following is NOT part of the axial skeleton?
Sella turcica
The pituitary gland is located in the _____.
Long bones
The bones of the limbs are classified as _____.
Vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
The nasal septum includes which of the following?
increase osmotic pressure within joint
Which of the following is NOT a function of synovial fluid?
Talus
The distal end of the tibia articulates with the _____.
Osteons
Which of the following is NOT found in spongy bone?
Endosteum
The lining of the marrow cavity is called the ____.
Transverse foramina
The parts of the sternum include all of the following EXCEPT _____.
Ulna
The oleocranon process would be found on the _____.
Facets for the articulation of ribs
Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of _____.
Intramembranous bones
Bones that develop from membranous connective tissue are called ______.
Hinge joint
The elbow joint is an example of a _____.
Transverse sacral ridges
Proof of the fusion of vertebrae in the sacrum is evidenced by the ______.
Blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased
Which is greater?
Aromion process
The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the _____.
Xiphoid process
Which of the following is most likely to be damaged during CPR?
Pisiform
The smallest bone of the wrist is _____.
Trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna
Which two features make up the hinge at the elbow?
Canaliculi
The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are termed _____.
Result in thin, brittle bones
A lack of excercise would _____.
Phalanges
The bones that form the fingers are _____.
Trabeculae
The plates of bone found in spongy bone are called ______.
The transverse processes of the vertebrae
The ribs articulate with the ______.
All of the above
Functions of the skeletal system include support, storage, blood cell production, and protection.
Sutures
Skull bones are joined by tight connections called _____.
Fossa
The term used to describe a shallow depression is _____.
Femur
What bone articulates with the coxa at the acetabulum?
Styloid process
Ligaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to the _____.
126
The appendicular skeleton contains _____ bones.
The legs
The joints that are subjected to the greatest forces would be found in _____.
Talus and calcaneus
If you are standing normally, most of your weight is transmitted to the ground by the _____.
Blood cells
Red bone marrow functions in the formation of _____.
Elevation
Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing food?
Styloid process
The ______ of the radius assists in the stabilization of the wrist joint.
5
The vertebral column contains _____ lumbar vertebrae.
Knee
The largest, most complex synovial joint is the _____.
Long bones have reached their adult length
When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
All of the above
A synovial membrane lubricates the joint, secretes synovial fluid, stores small amounts of adipose tissue, and surround the joint cavity.
Pectoral girdle
Which of the following is NOT a part of the axial division of the skeletal system?
All of the above
The paranasal sinus are located in the frontal, sphenoid, maxillary, and ethmoid bones.
Manubrium
The clavicle articulates with the _____.
Amphiarthrosis
A slightly movable joins is a _____.
Pituitary gland
The sella turcica contains the _____.
Radius
the bones of the forearm include the _____.
Osteopenia
The normal loss of bone that occurs with aging is called _____.
All of the above
As you proceed from the head inferiorly down the vertebral column the transverse processes become shorter, the spinous processes become larger, the body of the vertebrae become heavier, and the vertebrae become larger.
Osteoclasts
Large, multinucleated cells that can dissolve the bony matrix are termed _____.
Endocrine
The body system that is responsible for synthesizing vitamin D3 is the _____.
The ulna
The radius articulates with _____.
Opposition
The special movement of the thumb that allows it to grasp an object and hold onto it is called _____.
Foot
The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantarflexion involve moving the _____.
All of the above
Coxal bones include the illum, ischium, and pubis.
None of the above
The joints between the phalanges are classified as _____.
Osteocytes
Mature bone cells are termed _____.
Calcium
The most abundant mineral in the human body is ____.
Trochanter
A large rough projection of a bone (found only on the femur) is termed a _____.
Osteons
Bones receive oxygen and nutrients from blood vessels passing through _____.
Inversion
The movement classification used when you turn your foot toward the other foot is _____.
Epiphysis
The ends of long bones are known as the _____.
Axial
The spinal column and bones of the middle ear are part of the _____ skeleton.
Epiphyseal
Bone growth will continue as long as the _____ plate exists.
Condyloid
What type of joint is formed when an oval shaped bone fits into an elliptical cavity?
Fossa
_____ is a groove or shallow depression on the surface of a bone.
Ball and socket
The joints of the hips and shoulders are examples of _____ joints.
Osteoblasts
Compact bone is created over the surface of spongy bone by _____.
Osteoporosis
The bone disease _____ is a degenerative disorder, characterized by thinning bones.
Short
Which type of bone is cube-shaped in appearance?
Crest
A narrow ridge of bone is known as the _____.
Calcium
Which mineral is included in the composition of bone?
Osteoblasts
Cells that synthesize the organic components of the bone matrix are called _____.
A cartilage model
Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of _____.
Short
The ankle bones are examples of _____ bones.
Osteolysis
In the process of _____ the bony matrix is dissolved to release the stored minerals.
Chondroitin sulfate
Bone contains all of the following except _____.
Calcitonin
Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone _____.
Irregular
The vertebrae are examples of _____ bones.
Flat
The sternum is an example of a _____ bone.
Osteon
The basic functional unit of compact bone is the Haversian system or _____.
Temporal
The external auditory meatus is found in the _____ bone.
Mandibular fossa
The lower jaw articulates with the temporal bone at the _____.
All of the above
Study of human skeletons can reveal information concerning the person's sex, age and nutritional status, and size and handedness.
Crista galli
Membranes that stabilize the position of the brain are attached to the _____>
8
The wrist, or carpus, contains _____ bones.
Fibula
The _____ provides lateral stability to the ankle.
Pelvis
Differences in the skeletons of males and females can best be seen in the characteristics of the _____.
Transverse formania
Cervical Vertebrae can usually be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of _____.
Stylomastoid foramen
The facial nerve passes through the _____.
Fibula
The lateral malleolus is found on the _____.
Ribs
The costal groove would be found on _____.
Diploe
The term _____ refers to the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.
Lateral malleolus
Which portion of the fibula articulates with the talus?
Provide central support for the body and protect internal organs
The major function of the axial skeleton is to _____.
Sacrum
The pelvic girdle does not include the _____.
Absorb shock
The major function of the intervertebral discs is to _____.
Capitate
The short bone that attaches to the third metacarpal is the ______.
The radius and the ulna
The antebrachium is composed of which of the following two bones?
Atlas
Only the _____ vertebra does not have a body.
Linea aspera
A structure found on the femur is _____.
Sella turcica of the sphenoid
The pituitary gland is housed in the _____.
Xiphoid process
The inferiormost part of the sternum is the _____.
Carpus
The "true wrist" or _____ consists of a group of eight short bones united by ligaments.
Inferior nasal conchae
The ethmoid bone is composed of all of the following except the _____.
Sagittal
The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the _____.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of _____.
Ostealgia
_____ is pain in the bone.
Hyaline cartilage
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
Compact bone
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
Communication
Which of the following is not the function of the skeletal system?
Fat
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of _____.
Drinking fluoridated water
Factors in preventing osteoporosis include _____.
Is produced by secondary ossification centers
Ossification of the ends of long bones _____.
Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called _____.
Parathyroid hormone
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
Osteoblast
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the _____.
The osteon
The structural unit of compact bone is _____.
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
Blood vessels and nerve fibers
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of _____.
Diaphysis
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the _____.
The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue
Select the correct statement concerning the location of blood-forming tissue.
Grow longer
When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones _____.
The bones would be more flexible
How would increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone?
Elevated levels of sex hormones
Premature closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by _____.
Osteocytes
The lacunae of bone contain _____.
Inflammation of the joint is secondary to the joint damage
In a degenerative disease of synovial joints _____.
A portion of the protein and mineral content are replaced each year
In normal adult bones, _____.
Has a more restricted range of movement
Compared to the hand, the foot _____.
His foot
Luke stumbles and injurse his hallux. What part of his anatomy is injured?
Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull
Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?
The orbits are formed of both facial and cranial bones
Choose the statement that is most correct about orbits.
Superior ramus
The following is not a structure found on the ischium.
The transverse processes do not have facets that articulate with the tubercles of the ribs.
Thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 are different from the others in which of the following characteristics?
Sphenoid/maxilla
The superior orbital fissure is formed in the sphenoid bone, whereas the inferior orbital fissue is formed between the _____ and _____.
Fibula
Which of the following bones is not weight bearing?
Occipital
The skull bone that the foramen magnum passes through is the _____.
Bone formation
Osteogenesis is the process of _____.
Thyroid
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?
Reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 _____.
Growth hormone
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
Trabeculae
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called _____.
Transverse
A bone fracture perpendicular to the bone's axis is called a _____ fracture.
Electral signals direct the remodeling process
It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responsible for bone remodeling?
Wolff's Law
_____ is concerned with the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it.
By pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows _____.
Within fibrous membranes
Cranial bones develop _____.
Osteomyelitis
_____ is due to pus-forming bacteria.
Interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through _____.
Decreased muscle response
Bill develops a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands which causes the level of parathyroid hormone in his blood to be higher than normal. Which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?
A young male
The explorer discovers a skeleton with the following characteristics. The skull has a large sloping forehead and a large mandible with large teeth. The acetabulum is directed laterally, the ischial spine points medially, and the angle inferior to the pubic symphysis is less than 90 degrees. The long bones of the arms and legs are relatively light and they show definite signs of epiphyseal plates. This skeleton is probably from _____.
Some teeth
In an accident, Tom suffers a fracture of the alveolar process of his maxillae. As a consequence of this injury he loses _____.
Calcium, phosphate, and vitamin d
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ______.