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93 terms

A & P Chp 10,11 Test Review

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synergistic
type of muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover to produce a more effective movement
intrinsic
muscles that are within the part being moved. ex muscles that move the hand begin and end in the hand
calcaneal, achilles
common tendon of the gastrocnemous and soleus muscle
perimysium
tough connective tissue binding together fascicles, which are groups of skeletal muscle fibers
size, location, function, shape, direction, number of heads, points of attachment
7 features used in naming muscles
location
brachialis is named after what feature
convergent
type of muscles that have fibers that converge to a narrow attachment
muscles of facial expression
muscles that have at least one of their points of attachment to the deep layers of the skin over the face or neck
origin
fixed attachment of a muscle
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
4 parts of the anterior thigh of the quadricep muscle
median nerve
nerve affected in carpal tunnel syndrome
aponeurosis
broad, flat sheet of connective tissue usually merging with the fibrous wrappings of another muscle
endomysium, perimysium, epimysium
connective tissue components
tendon, aponeurosis, fascia, tendon sheath
connective tissue components that attach muscles to bone
number of heads or divisions
feature used in naming tricep muscle
lumbricales, interosseous, opponens pollicis
3 examples of intrinsic hand muscles
epimysium
course sheath covering the muscle as a whole
endomysium
delicate connective membrane that covers specialized skeletal muscle cells called muscle fibers
tendon
strong tough cord that on its other end is continuous with the periosteum of the bone
fascia
fibrous ct surrounding the muscle organ and is outside the epimysium and tendon. general term for the fibrous ct found under the skin and surrounding many deeper organs
tendon sheath
tube shaped structures of fibrous ct. have synovial membrane lining which secretes a lubricating fluid and allows tendon to move easily
parallel
fibers are parallel to long axis of the muscle
pennate
fibers are oblique like the feathers in a plume pen
bipennate
fibers are double feathered
sphincter
fibers are curved, as in the sphincters of the face
antagonist
muscles that when contracting, directly oppose the prime mover, or agonist. they are relaxed while the prime mover is contracting to cause mvmt. important because they provide precision and control during contraction of the prime mover
prime mover (agonist)
muscle or group of muscles that directly performs a specific mvmt. mvmt of the muscle is action or function of that muscle
fixators
function as joint stabilizers
masseter, temporalis, medial, lateral pterygoid
muscles of mastication
lateral pterygoid
muscle of mastication that opens the jaw
extrinsic
muscles originating from the outside part of the skeleton moved. muscles originating in the forearm can pull on their insertions in the wrists, hand, and fingers to move them
opponens pollicis
important muscle of the thumb, it allows the thumb to be drawn across the palm to touch the tip of any finger--opposition of the thumb
gastrocnemius
most superficial muscle of the posterior leg and forms the greater part of the calf; flexes the leg and plantar flexes the foot
soleus
broad flat muscle just deep to the gastrocnemius, which helps to extend the foot
maintain posture, heat production, movement
3 major roles muscles play in the body
musculoskeletal system
a single, continuous structure that comprises a coordinated, dynamic framework for the body
skeletal muscles
organs of the muscular system
smooth
nonstriated involuntary
isotonic
type of contraction in which tone remains the same but length changes
sliding filament theory
contraction process that involves the sliding of thin filaments toward the center of each sarcomere which quickly shortens the entire myofibril and the entire muscle fiber
sarcoplasm
muscle fibers' cytoplasm
cardiac
striated involuntary; found only in the heart
muscular dystrophy
group of genetic diseases characterized by atrophy of skeletal muscle tissue
convulsions
abnormal, uncoordinated tetanic contractions of varying groups of muscles
excite, contract, extend
major function of skeletal muscles
peristalsis
performed by smooth muscle tissue; progressive wavelike mvmt that occurs involuntarily in the walls of hollow structures of the body
muscle fibers
continually remake ATP because they only store a small amount; contain mitochondria and have several nuclei
fibromyositis
tendon and muscle inflammation
myositis
inflammation of a muscle
sprain
occurs in the area of a joint and results in ligament damage
strain
muscle pain; usually involve overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers
sarcomere
basic contractile unit of a muscle fiber
fibrillation
individual fibers of a muscle contract out of sync with each other
motor unit
made up of one motor neuron plus the muscle fibers (cell) that attach to it
atrophy
shrinking of muscle mass
t tubules
allow electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell
excess oxygen
myoglobin are attached to this inside cells
synapse, acetylcholine
what type of connection is a neuromuscular junction & what is released there
relaxation
almost immediately after the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases its calcium ions into the sarcoplase, it begins actively pumping them back into the sacs.
intercalated disks
cardiac muscle cells are joined together by these strong specialized junctions
sarcolemma
plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
isometric
type of contraction where muscle length remains the same but tension increases
2 sr sacs, t tubules
what makes up a triad
myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin
4 protein molecules that make up myofilaments
myosin
what thick myofilaments are composed of
actin, tropomyosin, troponin
what thin myofilaments are composed of
triad
term given a t tubule sandwiched between 2 sacs of the sr. important because it allows an electrical impulse traveling along a t tubule to stimulate the membranes of adjacent sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
actin
a globular protein that forms 2 fibrous strands twisted around each other to form most of the thin filament
tropomyosin
protein that covers the active sites on the actin molecules when the myofilaments are at rest
troponin
protein that holds tropomyosin molecules in place
myosin
long shafts bundled together to form a thick filament and have "heads" sticking out from the bundle. the heads are chemically attracted to the actin molecules of the nearby thin filaments
excitability
ability to be stimulated
contractility
ability to contract, or shorten, and produce body movement
extensibility
ability to extend, or stretch, allowing muscles to return to their resting length
myofibrils
bundles of very fine fibers that extend lengthwise along skeletal muscle fibers and almost fill their sarcoplasm; made up of thick & thin myofilaments
sarcoplasmic reticulum
muscle fibers network of tubules and sacs that is comparable to the ER of other cells;
heat production
muscle cells perform catabolism (breakdown) to provide this function for the body
contraction
this constitutes one of the most important parts of the mechanism for maintaining homeostasis of temperature
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that is released into the synaptic cleft when nerve impulses reach the end of a motor neuron fiber
excitation
the process of synaptic transmission and induction of an impulse
calcium
binds to troponin molecules causing the tropomyosin to shift and expose active sites on the actin molecules
glucose, oxygen
muscle fibers requires this to perform catabolism
myoglobin
reddish-pigmented protein molecules
tetanus
aka tetanic contractions; smooth sustained muscle contractions--or continuous contraction
stretch reflex
a response in which the body tries to maintain a constant muscle length. if an increased load is unsustainable, the body will abandon the contraction and force you to relax and drop the load
isotonic
same tension
isometric
same length
concentric
contractions that result in the shortening of the muscle being contracted
eccentric
type of contraction that results in the lengthening of the muscle being contracted
concentric, eccentric
2 types of isotonic contractions
aerobic exercise
increased blood flow as a result of this allows a more efficient delivery of oxygen and glucose to muscle fibers during exercise; causes an increase in the number of mitochondria in the muscle fibers, allowing for the production of more atp for a rapid energy source
cramps
painful, involuntary muscle spasms; often occur when a muscle is inflammed
rigor mortis
refers to the stiffness of skeletal muscles sometimes seen shortly after death