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93 terms

A & P Chp 10,11 Test Review

type of muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover to produce a more effective movement
muscles that are within the part being moved. ex muscles that move the hand begin and end in the hand
calcaneal, achilles
common tendon of the gastrocnemous and soleus muscle
tough connective tissue binding together fascicles, which are groups of skeletal muscle fibers
size, location, function, shape, direction, number of heads, points of attachment
7 features used in naming muscles
brachialis is named after what feature
type of muscles that have fibers that converge to a narrow attachment
muscles of facial expression
muscles that have at least one of their points of attachment to the deep layers of the skin over the face or neck
fixed attachment of a muscle
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
4 parts of the anterior thigh of the quadricep muscle
median nerve
nerve affected in carpal tunnel syndrome
broad, flat sheet of connective tissue usually merging with the fibrous wrappings of another muscle
endomysium, perimysium, epimysium
connective tissue components
tendon, aponeurosis, fascia, tendon sheath
connective tissue components that attach muscles to bone
number of heads or divisions
feature used in naming tricep muscle
lumbricales, interosseous, opponens pollicis
3 examples of intrinsic hand muscles
course sheath covering the muscle as a whole
delicate connective membrane that covers specialized skeletal muscle cells called muscle fibers
strong tough cord that on its other end is continuous with the periosteum of the bone
fibrous ct surrounding the muscle organ and is outside the epimysium and tendon. general term for the fibrous ct found under the skin and surrounding many deeper organs
tendon sheath
tube shaped structures of fibrous ct. have synovial membrane lining which secretes a lubricating fluid and allows tendon to move easily
fibers are parallel to long axis of the muscle
fibers are oblique like the feathers in a plume pen
fibers are double feathered
fibers are curved, as in the sphincters of the face
muscles that when contracting, directly oppose the prime mover, or agonist. they are relaxed while the prime mover is contracting to cause mvmt. important because they provide precision and control during contraction of the prime mover
prime mover (agonist)
muscle or group of muscles that directly performs a specific mvmt. mvmt of the muscle is action or function of that muscle
function as joint stabilizers
masseter, temporalis, medial, lateral pterygoid
muscles of mastication
lateral pterygoid
muscle of mastication that opens the jaw
muscles originating from the outside part of the skeleton moved. muscles originating in the forearm can pull on their insertions in the wrists, hand, and fingers to move them
opponens pollicis
important muscle of the thumb, it allows the thumb to be drawn across the palm to touch the tip of any finger--opposition of the thumb
most superficial muscle of the posterior leg and forms the greater part of the calf; flexes the leg and plantar flexes the foot
broad flat muscle just deep to the gastrocnemius, which helps to extend the foot
maintain posture, heat production, movement
3 major roles muscles play in the body
musculoskeletal system
a single, continuous structure that comprises a coordinated, dynamic framework for the body
skeletal muscles
organs of the muscular system
nonstriated involuntary
type of contraction in which tone remains the same but length changes
sliding filament theory
contraction process that involves the sliding of thin filaments toward the center of each sarcomere which quickly shortens the entire myofibril and the entire muscle fiber
muscle fibers' cytoplasm
striated involuntary; found only in the heart
muscular dystrophy
group of genetic diseases characterized by atrophy of skeletal muscle tissue
abnormal, uncoordinated tetanic contractions of varying groups of muscles
excite, contract, extend
major function of skeletal muscles
performed by smooth muscle tissue; progressive wavelike mvmt that occurs involuntarily in the walls of hollow structures of the body
muscle fibers
continually remake ATP because they only store a small amount; contain mitochondria and have several nuclei
tendon and muscle inflammation
inflammation of a muscle
occurs in the area of a joint and results in ligament damage
muscle pain; usually involve overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers
basic contractile unit of a muscle fiber
individual fibers of a muscle contract out of sync with each other
motor unit
made up of one motor neuron plus the muscle fibers (cell) that attach to it
shrinking of muscle mass
t tubules
allow electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell
excess oxygen
myoglobin are attached to this inside cells
synapse, acetylcholine
what type of connection is a neuromuscular junction & what is released there
almost immediately after the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases its calcium ions into the sarcoplase, it begins actively pumping them back into the sacs.
intercalated disks
cardiac muscle cells are joined together by these strong specialized junctions
plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
type of contraction where muscle length remains the same but tension increases
2 sr sacs, t tubules
what makes up a triad
myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin
4 protein molecules that make up myofilaments
what thick myofilaments are composed of
actin, tropomyosin, troponin
what thin myofilaments are composed of
term given a t tubule sandwiched between 2 sacs of the sr. important because it allows an electrical impulse traveling along a t tubule to stimulate the membranes of adjacent sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
a globular protein that forms 2 fibrous strands twisted around each other to form most of the thin filament
protein that covers the active sites on the actin molecules when the myofilaments are at rest
protein that holds tropomyosin molecules in place
long shafts bundled together to form a thick filament and have "heads" sticking out from the bundle. the heads are chemically attracted to the actin molecules of the nearby thin filaments
ability to be stimulated
ability to contract, or shorten, and produce body movement
ability to extend, or stretch, allowing muscles to return to their resting length
bundles of very fine fibers that extend lengthwise along skeletal muscle fibers and almost fill their sarcoplasm; made up of thick & thin myofilaments
sarcoplasmic reticulum
muscle fibers network of tubules and sacs that is comparable to the ER of other cells;
heat production
muscle cells perform catabolism (breakdown) to provide this function for the body
this constitutes one of the most important parts of the mechanism for maintaining homeostasis of temperature
a neurotransmitter that is released into the synaptic cleft when nerve impulses reach the end of a motor neuron fiber
the process of synaptic transmission and induction of an impulse
binds to troponin molecules causing the tropomyosin to shift and expose active sites on the actin molecules
glucose, oxygen
muscle fibers requires this to perform catabolism
reddish-pigmented protein molecules
aka tetanic contractions; smooth sustained muscle contractions--or continuous contraction
stretch reflex
a response in which the body tries to maintain a constant muscle length. if an increased load is unsustainable, the body will abandon the contraction and force you to relax and drop the load
same tension
same length
contractions that result in the shortening of the muscle being contracted
type of contraction that results in the lengthening of the muscle being contracted
concentric, eccentric
2 types of isotonic contractions
aerobic exercise
increased blood flow as a result of this allows a more efficient delivery of oxygen and glucose to muscle fibers during exercise; causes an increase in the number of mitochondria in the muscle fibers, allowing for the production of more atp for a rapid energy source
painful, involuntary muscle spasms; often occur when a muscle is inflammed
rigor mortis
refers to the stiffness of skeletal muscles sometimes seen shortly after death