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type of muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover to produce a more effective movement
muscles that are within the part being moved. ex muscles that move the hand begin and end in the hand
tough connective tissue binding together fascicles, which are groups of skeletal muscle fibers
size, location, function, shape, direction, number of heads, points of attachment
7 features used in naming muscles
muscles of facial expression
muscles that have at least one of their points of attachment to the deep layers of the skin over the face or neck
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
4 parts of the anterior thigh of the quadricep muscle
broad, flat sheet of connective tissue usually merging with the fibrous wrappings of another muscle
delicate connective membrane that covers specialized skeletal muscle cells called muscle fibers
fibrous ct surrounding the muscle organ and is outside the epimysium and tendon. general term for the fibrous ct found under the skin and surrounding many deeper organs
tube shaped structures of fibrous ct. have synovial membrane lining which secretes a lubricating fluid and allows tendon to move easily
muscles that when contracting, directly oppose the prime mover, or agonist. they are relaxed while the prime mover is contracting to cause mvmt. important because they provide precision and control during contraction of the prime mover
prime mover (agonist)
muscle or group of muscles that directly performs a specific mvmt. mvmt of the muscle is action or function of that muscle
muscles originating from the outside part of the skeleton moved. muscles originating in the forearm can pull on their insertions in the wrists, hand, and fingers to move them
important muscle of the thumb, it allows the thumb to be drawn across the palm to touch the tip of any finger--opposition of the thumb
most superficial muscle of the posterior leg and forms the greater part of the calf; flexes the leg and plantar flexes the foot
a single, continuous structure that comprises a coordinated, dynamic framework for the body
sliding filament theory
contraction process that involves the sliding of thin filaments toward the center of each sarcomere which quickly shortens the entire myofibril and the entire muscle fiber
performed by smooth muscle tissue; progressive wavelike mvmt that occurs involuntarily in the walls of hollow structures of the body
continually remake ATP because they only store a small amount; contain mitochondria and have several nuclei
almost immediately after the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases its calcium ions into the sarcoplase, it begins actively pumping them back into the sacs.
term given a t tubule sandwiched between 2 sacs of the sr. important because it allows an electrical impulse traveling along a t tubule to stimulate the membranes of adjacent sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
a globular protein that forms 2 fibrous strands twisted around each other to form most of the thin filament
protein that covers the active sites on the actin molecules when the myofilaments are at rest
long shafts bundled together to form a thick filament and have "heads" sticking out from the bundle. the heads are chemically attracted to the actin molecules of the nearby thin filaments
bundles of very fine fibers that extend lengthwise along skeletal muscle fibers and almost fill their sarcoplasm; made up of thick & thin myofilaments
muscle fibers network of tubules and sacs that is comparable to the ER of other cells;
this constitutes one of the most important parts of the mechanism for maintaining homeostasis of temperature
a neurotransmitter that is released into the synaptic cleft when nerve impulses reach the end of a motor neuron fiber
binds to troponin molecules causing the tropomyosin to shift and expose active sites on the actin molecules
a response in which the body tries to maintain a constant muscle length. if an increased load is unsustainable, the body will abandon the contraction and force you to relax and drop the load
increased blood flow as a result of this allows a more efficient delivery of oxygen and glucose to muscle fibers during exercise; causes an increase in the number of mitochondria in the muscle fibers, allowing for the production of more atp for a rapid energy source
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