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107 terms

Chapter 4

STUDY
PLAY
Stimulus
Some type of physical energy, such as sound or light, to which we can respond.
Sensation
The direct effect of stimulation of receptor cells by a stimulus

Basic, immediate experiences that a stimulus such as a sound elicits in a sense organ such as the ear
Perception
Our organization and interpretation of sensory experience

Process of interpreting, organizing, and often elaborating on sensations
Skin senses
Pressure, temperature, and change
Kinesthesis
Body senses that allow us to detect movement and the position of our bodies.
Transduction
The process by which sensory information reaches our brain.

Process by which sensory organs transform mechanical, chemical, or light energy into the electrochemical energy that is generated by neurons firing
mechanical energy
hearing and skin senses
chemical energy
smelling and tasting
light energy
seeing
Photopigments
Chemicals contained in our eyes that change their shape when they are hit by light
Stimulate occipital cortex at back of brain
creates sensations of flashing light
Stimulate auditory region on side of the brain
Causes patients to hear tones
Synesthesia
Ability to hear flavors or see sounds
Most important factors that determine whether or not we perceive things happening around us
Sensory thresholds, attention, and adaptation
Psychophysics
part of psychology that focuses on relationship between physical aspects of external stimuli and our perceptions of these stimuli
perception of sensory inputs occurs only when?
the strength of stimulus reaches minimal or threshold level of intensity sufficient to activate a sensory process
Threshold
minimum level of intensity or strength of a stimulus that is sufficient to activate a sensory process
Most important reason we do not respond to many stimuli?
Biological limitation of our senses
2 kinds of sensory thresholds that operate to limit our perception of sensation?
Absolute threshold and difference threshold
Absolute threshold
The minimum physical intensity of a stimulus that can be perceived by an observer 50% of the time

Differ from person to person
Difference threshold
Minimum increase in intensity of a stimulus necessary to notice a change 50% of the time

Just noticeable difference

JND
Perception of a stimulus
always relative to its background level or its context.
The degree of increase or decrease in intensity that is necessary to produce a jnd (just noticeable difference) depends on?
the original strength of the stimulus
Weber's law
1834

major principle of sensation

describes relationship between stimulus intensity and our perception of stimulus change

difference threshold tends to be a constant fraction of the original stimulus intensity

as the strength of the original stimulus increases, the magnitude of the change must also increase in order for a jnd to be perceived

^I = kI
^I
change in stimulus intensity neccessary for a jnd
I
initial stimulus intensity
k
Weber's constant
attention
selective psychological process in that we are aware of certain stimuli and not others at any moment

refers to the control of our behavior by specific stimuli or stimulus situations

psychological selection mechanism that determines which stimuli an organism responds to or perceives

does not block physical and biological response of our sense organs to stimuli; increases or decreases our perception
sensory adaptation
the decrease in the response of sensory receptors to stimuli when they are exposed to continual, unchanging stimulation
Perception is dependent on?
Stimulus change

If stimuli remain constant, we adapt to them and they are no longer perceivable
Which sense adapts most quickly?
smell
saccadic movements
the rapid scanning movements of an eye

eyes continually move, rapidly changing the location of the stimulus within the eye
which sense modality is slowest to adapt?
pain
signal detection theory
variables that influence what we do or do not perceive

our ability to detect a sensory stimulus (signal) depends not only on the intensity of the signal but also on variables such as distractions and motivation

no such thing as an absolute threshold for a given stimulus modality because detecting a signal depends not only on stimulus strength but also on background noise and psychological variables such as expectation and response bias
noise
any kind of distracting and irrelevant stimuli
external noise
distracting factors in the outside environment
internal noise
ongoing, variable, random firing of neurons
sensory inputs
occur against a variable background of external and internal noise, the level of which affects our ability to detect signals
response bias
inclination or tendency to respond in a certain way

created by positive and negative consequences associated with hits, misses, and false alarms
ROC curve
receiver operating characteristic curve

illustrates trying harder to avoid false alarms and thus raise response criterion by requiring a stronger stimulus before reporting a sighting

points falling above the diagonal line represent stimulus intensities above the threshold

points below the diagonal line represent stimulus intensities below threshold
response criterion
the particular criterion you set for how sure you must be before reporting a signal has been detected
perceptual organization
the process by which we structure elementary sensations into the objects we perceive
Who identified major principles of perceptual organization?
Gestalt psychologists

Max Wertheimer

Kurt Koffka

Wolfgang Kohler
Gestalts
The whole patterns that develop after people organize sensations
Figure
the part of an image on which we focus our attention
ground
the background against which the figure that we focus on stands
feature of perceptual organization
tendency to differentiate between figure and ground
perceptual grouping
tendency to organize patterns of stimuli into larger units according to proximity, similarity, and good continuation

how we organize sensory input into meaningful wholes
3 major ways patterns of stimuli grouped into larger units
proximity

similarity

good continuation
proximity
perceptual grouping principle that says we tend to organize perceptions by grouping elements that are the nearest to each other
similarity
tend to group elements that are similar to each other.
good continuation
perceptual grouping principle that we are more likely to perceive stimuli as a whole or single group if they flow smoothly into one another than if they are discontinuous
closure
perceptual organizing principle that we tend to perceive incomplete figures as complete
selective attention
basic principle of perceptual processing

process of focusing on one or a few stimuli of particular significance while ignoring others and enhances our perceptual ability
Inverse hypothesis
related to selective attention

the more complex the stimulus, the less attention we can focus on any particular aspect of it
sudden change
a sudden change in either the quality or quantity of a background stimulus generally causes a shift in attention
contrast
diverts our attention because it contrasts with its surroundings
novelty
things that are novel or unusual tend to attract our attention
stimulus intensity
vary the intensity of a stimulus
repetition
another way to attract attention to stimuli
key stimuli
captures attention by activating motivational mechanisms such as fear, hunger, or sexual arousal

played important role in guiding and directing behavior throughout evolution
the major function of vision
to represent the spatial arrangement of objects in our environment
what perceptual cues allow us to judge accurately the distance of objects?
binocular cues and monocular cues
binocular cues
visual cues for depth or distance, such as binocular disparity and convergence, that depend on both eyes working together
monocular cues
distance cues such as linear perspective, interposition, relative size, texture gradients, aerial perspective, relative motion, and height on a plane that can be used with just one eye
binocular (retinal) disparity
difference in the retinal image of an object as seen from each eye, due to the difference in viewing angles, that provides an important binocular cue for depth
when is there greater binocular disparity?
when objects are close to our eyes
important depth cues for perception
binocular (retinal) disparity and convergence
the minimum disparity required to detect a depth difference
1 micron (1 millionth of a meter)
convergence
binocular distance cue based on the fact that two eyes must converge or rotate toward the inside to perceive objects closer than about 25 feet

the closer the object, the more rotation is necessary and the more muscle tension created
If objects that are far away create little retinal disparity and no convergence, how can we judge their distance?
Monocular cues
height on a plane
elevation

important monocular depth cue based on the fact that objects that are highest on one's plane of view appear to be farthest away
overlap
interposition

monocular distance cue based on the fact that objects close to us tend to block out parts of objects that are farther away
linear perspective
monocular distance cue based on the fact that parallel lines converge when stretched into the distance
relative size
monocular distance cue based on the fact that objects of the same size appear to be smaller the farther they are from the viewer
texture gradient
monocular distance cue based on the fact that textured surfaces (such as a grassy lawn) appear to be smoother, denser, and less textured when they are far from the viewer than when they are close
aerial (atmospheric) perspective
monocular distance cue based on the fact that distant objects tend to appear more fuzzy and less clear than those close to the viewer due to dust and haze
relative motion (motion parallax)
monocular distance cue based on the fact that moving objects appear to move a greater distance when they are close to the viewer than when they are far away
spacial perception
perceptual processing is necessary

spatial cues draw upon both past experience (memory) and cognitive processing for spatial representation such as depth
Gibson's theory of direct perception
all of the visual information necessary for spatial representation is available from the environment
in the form of environmental invariances

spatial representation is a process of direct perception, not a process of cognition


all information necessary for perception is available to the sensory system and no cognitive processing is necessary to complete the perceptual process
direct perception
the interpretation of sensory information directly by the brain as opposed to perceptual interpretation resulting from cognitive processing
invariant
sensory information from the environment that is constant from one experience to the next

sufficient to represent depth or distance without additional cognitive processing.

Examples are texture and motion parallax
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960)
provided evidence that some aspects of depth perception are inborn or innate
visual cliff
created by Gibson and Walk.

elevated glass surface that produces the illusion of a cliff, allowing researchers to test the ability of animals to perceive and respond to depth cues

suggested that depth perception is based on the monocular cue motion parallax
Is depth perception an innate ability or learned?
depth perception is either innate or learned very early in life. infants are not living in a visual world as stated by William James in 1890. Rather, their world is perceived
size constancy
1 form of perceptual constancy

although the retinal image of an object becomes smaller as the object recedes into the distance (or larger as it approaches), the viewer adjusts for this change and perceives the object to be constant in size
perceptual constancy
allows us to adjust for varying conditions and changing patterns as we perceive the world

objects that are normally perceived to be constant in size, color, or brightness, and shape, despite the fact that their retinal images change according to different conditions
A.H Holway and Edwin Boring (1941)
performed classic study of size constancy that found that subjects were able to make extremely accurate judgments of the size of a circle located at varying distances under conditions filled with distance cues

As distance cues were eliminated, judgment of size became dependent on the size of the retinal image

conclusion was that that an important cue for size constancy is retinal size
brightness constancy
element of perceptual constancy

we perceive objects that we see at night or in poor lighting to be the same brightness as they appear during the day
color constancy
element of perceptual constancy

we perceive objects that we see in the dark to be the same color as they appear during the day even though their retinal images change
shape constancy
element of perceptual constancy

we perceive objects as maintaining the same shape even though their retinal images change when we view them from different angles

we perceive our dynamic environment as stable and containing constant stimulus properties
Factors of object constancy
object familiarity

innateness
perception of physical stimuli not the same as properties of physical stimulus
some of this discrepancy produced by our nervous system during the process of transducing the physical sensation

other discrepancies more related to the perceptual organization of stimuli
illusion
false or inaccurate perception that differs from the actual physical state of the perceived object

provides insights into normal perception
ames illusion
when people walk across room, they appear to grow or shrink

illusion produced by conflicting environmental cues

our perceptual constancy processes cause us to perceive the room as rectangular and the windows as equal in size and rectangular in shape
Muller-lyer illusion
result of size constancy according to R.L. Gregory

the angled lines provide linear perspective cues
R.L. Gregory
theory that Muller-lyer illusion is result of size constancy.

supported by research demonstrating that muller-lyer is weak or absent in cultures in which people have little exposure to angles.
moon illusion
when moon is low on the horizon,it appears larger than when it is overhead, yet the actual size of the moon's image on the retina is the same regardless of position in sky.illusion result of size constancy.

when moon is low, it appears to be farther away than when it is overhead. this effect results from visual cues for distance. compared to trees and other objects on the horizon, we perceive moon to be far away. when we look at the moon overhead, we have no visual cues for distance
ponzo illusion
two horizontal lines are equal in length although we perceive the distant line as longer

illusion of perspective
poggendorf illusion
appears that if the diagonal line were continued toward each other, the one on the right would pass above the left line. in reality, they would join. results from our inclination to maintain shape constancy
stereogram
optical illusions of depth created from flat 2-D images

depend on binocular vision and the inhibition of ocular convergence

binocular disparity produces 3-D image
stereoscope
produces 3-D illusions

similar to stereograms

present a 2-D image of the same object from slightly different perspectives to each eye. brain interprets the retinal display as depth and thus creates 3-D.
perceptual set
tendency to see, hear, smell, feel, or taste what we expect or what is consistent with our preconceived notion

motivational state can also have an impact
selective perception
a form of perceptual set

tendency to perceive stimuli that are consistent with our expectations and to ignore those that are inconsistent
ability to distinguish sensations
does not depend on differences between sense organs but rather on what part of brain activated by sensory messages
3 important principles that influence how people organize sensations into whole patterns called Gestalts
Figure and ground

perceptual grouping

closure
characteristics of stimuli that tend to capture attention almost automatically
sudden change

contrast and novelty

intensity

repetition

stimulus difficulty