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Nutrition for Health and Performance EXAM 2 (Ch. 6-9)
Terms in this set (252)
What types of people require more protein?
Children, adolescents, pregnant or lactating women, athletes, vegans/vegetarians
Why do children, adolescents and pregnant/ lactating women require more protein?
Because the are building new tissues
Why do athletes require more protein?
Because they are repairing & building tissues
Why do vegetarians/vegans need more protein?
Because they need better protein quality
What is a protein?
A large complex molecule found in the cells of all living things
What does a protein consist of?
What are the functions of proteins?
Function in metabolism, immunity, fluid balance and nutrient transport
Can proteins serve as a source of energy?
Yes, about 4/kcal/gram
What is an Amino Acid?
Building blocks of proteins
How do amino acids form a protein?
Each amino acid is attached to another by a peptide bond
How many essential amino acids are there?
9/20 amino acids are essential
How are essential amino acids obtained in the body?
Through food sources only, the body cannot make essential amino acids
Can nonessential amino acids be made in the body?
Yes, they can also be obtained from food sources as well.
What is it called when the body converts one amino acids into another (if necessary)
2 amino acids =
3 amino acids =
4-9 amino acids =
10+ amino acids =
What are the four levels of protein structure?
Primary structure of a protein:
sequential order of amino acids (Alphabet)
Secondary structure of a protein:
Spiral shape due to the chemical bonding between the amino acids (Words)
Tertiary structure of a protein:
Further folding into a three dimensional shape that is globular or Fibrous (Sentences)
Quaternary structure of a protein
Is a protein consisting of more than one Tertiary structure (Paragraphs)
Proteins lose shape (Denaturation) when subjected to
Heat, acids/bases, heavy metals
What is an example of protein denaturation in the body?
Sickle cell anemia
What is a complete/high quality protein?
contains all 9 essential amino acids
where are complete proteins typically found?
Mostly animal proteins, but can also be found specifically in soy, quinoa, and chia seeds
What is an incomplete protein?
a protein that does not contain all 9 essential amino acids
What are complementary proteins?
2 incomplete protein sources that together supply all 9 essential amino acids (Like beans and rice)
What is mutual supplementation
the act of combining 2 complementary proteins to make a complete protein
Proteins can be:
Enzymes, hormones, antibodies, neurotransmitters
What are the main functions proteins in the body?
-Cell growth, repair & maintenance
-Fluid & electrolyte balance
-Can serve as energy source (deamination)
-Transport & storage of nutrients
-Create compounds such as fibrin and collagen
What is the digestion process of ingested proteins?
HCI denatures proteins, in which HCI activates pepsin and then the pepsin breaks proteins into single amino acids and smaller polypeptides
Which organ produces protease?
What does protease do and where is it released?
Protease is released into the small intestine to digest polypeptides into dipeptides and tripeptides
Once polypeptides have been broken down by protease into dipeptides and tripeptides in the small intestine.. what happens next?
Cells in the walls of the small intestine break down dipeptides and tripeptides into single amino acids which are then absorbed into the blood and transported to the liver to be used as energy.
Protein digestibility also determines _______
High quality protein (highly digestible):
90% of amino acids are digested: animal protein sources; (meat dairy) also soy products
Low quality protein (Lower digestibility):
60-90%: grain & vegetable protein sources
What are the risks of consuming too much protein?
-bone loss (in people who also consume inadequate calcium)
Diets high in protein from animal sources are associated with ______________
High blood cholesterol
Does a high protein diet alone lead to bone loss?
No, bone loss occurs in high protein diets when the person is also not consuming enough calcium
What are good alternative(to meat) sources of protein?
dairy products, legumes, eggs, nuts, & whole grains
What are considered "new" alternatives to protein sources here in western society?
quorn, quinoa and amaranth
What are the benefits of protein supplementation in the form of powders, bars etc..?
They are safe, portable, and easy to prepare
Milk protein is 80% _____ and 20%______.
______ protein is "fast acting" and these amino acids are absorbed faster vs nonessential amino acids
What are some qualities of whey protein isolate?
little or no CHO or Fat
High in essential amino acids, especially BCAA (branch chain amino acids)
IT IS "FAST ACTING" (digests quickly)
What are some qualities of casein protein?
Consist of different amino acids than whey protein
high in glutamine
Would a gym rat who only cares about glamour muscles be more likely to take whey protein supplements or casein protein supplements?
Whey, he needs proteins that are digested fast to repair tissues
Would an endurance runner rather take whey protein supplements or casein protein supplements?
Probably casein, which is slow acting which will be good to have steady access to protein over longer periods of time.
What are some reasons a vegetarian might give for maintaining a diet that abstains from animal flesh?
Concerns over food safety
Semi-vegetarian (partial vegetarian or flexitarian)
Typically exclude or limit red meat, may also avoid other meats
Pesco means "fish"; the only source of animal protein in the diet
Excludes animal flesh & seafood
excludes dairy, flesh & seafood products
what are some nutritional deficiencies a Vegan might encounter?
what is a problem with a macrobiotic diet?
if taken to the extreme, it can cause serious malnutrition and death
-very restrictive diet; only eat fruits
-deficient in protein, calcium, zinc,
A vegetarian might benefit from the following:
-Lower intake of fat & total calories
-Lower blood pressure
-Higher F/U intake
-Reduced risk for heart disease
-reduced risk for some types of cancer (colon cancer)
-Fewer digestive problems
-Reduced risk for kidney disease, kidney stones, & gallstones
Are the benefits of vegetarianism guaranteed?
What vitamins & minerals could a vegetarian have a deficiency of?
-Vitamin D, b2, b12
Vegetarians must do what to maintain healthful nutrition?
Plan a balanced and adequate diet
_________ intake is a concern for vegetarians?
What types of proteins should a vegetarian be including in their diet to make sure they get all the essential amino acids?
Fat soluble vitamins include:
Fat soluble vitamins are ________
Stored in the body
Toxicity is possible with; fat soluble vitamins or water soluble vitamins?
Fat soluble vitamins
Toxicity is unlikely with; fat soluble vitamins or water soluble vitamins?
water soluble vitamins
water soluble vitamins include:
B & C vitamins
Water soluble vitamins are ________
not stored in the body
Fat-soluble vitamins are found in what parts of foods
the fatty parts of foods
How are fat-soluble vitamins absorbed?
With dietary fat
where do fat-soluble vitamins build up in the body?
what is the most likely cause of toxicity of fat-soluble vitamins?
What is a mega-dose?
What dietary cause might create a deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins?
Fat malabsorption or very low fat intake
Deficiency symptoms in fat-soluble vitamins may take ______ to develop. Why?
months, because the body uses the stored vitamins during times of low intake
How are water-soluble vitamins absorbed in the body?
directly into the blood
Deficiencies in water-soluble vitamins occur _______
How often do water-soluble vitamins need to be consumed?
daily or weekly
Does the body store water-soluble vitamins in the body efficiently?
What happens to excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins?
they are excreted through urine when tissues are saturated.
What are some techniques of minimizing the loss of vitamin potency when cooking?
-Minimize contact with water
-Limit exposure to light
Minerals always occur in their simplest form (True or false)
Are minerals as fragile as vitamins?
What are the two classifications of minerals based on need?
-Major; more than 100mg
-Trace; less than 100mg
Are minerals digested or broken down prior to absorption?
No, minerals always occur in their simplest form
Can minerals be synthesized by plants or animals?
No, minerals come from the environment
Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients (true or false)
Which vitamins are especially sensitive to contact with water when cooking?
What are the factors that determine the absorption efficacy of micronutrients?
- The chemical form of the nutrient(heme iron=25% non-heme iron=3-5%)
- Factors in food that bind micronutrients can prevent absorption
-Other nutrients in a meal can alter absorption (vitamin C enhances iron absorption)
- Amount of the nutrient consumed
Heme iron can be found in:
Meat, fish, poultry
Non-heme iron is found in:
Why is the supplementation of micronutrients controversial?
- It is easier to develop a toxicity with supplements
- Some supplements may be harmful to other subgroups
- Most minerals are better absorbed from food sources (especially animal food sources)
- Eating a variety of foods provides many other nutrients (eg; phytochemicals) (foods have good balance of nutrients)
- Supplements may alter the balance between nutrients
Where is the majority of fluid found in the body (70%)?
10-20% of the bodies fluid is found in ________
Adipose tissue (fat)
Women typically have more lean tissue than males (true or false)
1/3 of body fluids are _______
2/3 of body fluids are _______
Dehydration is a big concern to these populations:
The typical body water % in infants is:
The typical body water % in adults is:
The typical body water % in senior citizens is:
Body fluid is made up of:
what is an electrolyte (chemically)
Charged ions that can carry electric current
What is the function of fluids in the body broadly?
Fluids dissolve and transport substances
Increased blood volume can cause _________
Decreased blood volume can cause__________
Hypertension is often called __________ because it often has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not even know they have it
"the silent killer"
Hypertension is also known as__________
High blood pressure
Hypotension is also known as___________
Low blood pressure
How do fluids maintain body temperature?
-Evaporative cooling : Sweating
-The high heat capacity of water allows body fluids to remain stable
Fluids protect and lubricate tissues in:
The brain & spinal column
What is the most basic way of explaining what electrolytes do?
Enable nerves to respond to stimuli
Normal cell function depends on proper __________ and ___________ balance
_________ moves freely across cell membranes, __________ do not; must be transported by proteins
How are electrolytes transported?
__________ follows the movement of electrolytes
The thirst mechanism is found in the __________
What are some problems with the mechanism in the hypothalamus that tells us that we are thirsty?
-Although thirst might be quenched, it may not be enough to achieve fluid balance
-Ends before fluid balance is achieved
What are signals to the hypothalamus that might prompt thirst?
- Increased concentration of salt or solutes in the blood
- Low blood volume or blood pressure
What are ways the body loses fluids?
What are ways the body gains fluids?
What % of fluid do metabolic reactions contribute to fluid balance?
____________ is a symptom of drinking too much water (dilution of sodium)
___________ functions to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance and is associated with blood pressure and pH balance in the body
Sodium is required for ___________
Nerve impulse transmission
what is the adequate intake for sodium mg/day?
You need to watch out for; processed food, boxed/canned foods/ restaurants & the salt shaker; when trying to control _________ intake.
What can result from consuming too much sodium?
What is hypernatremia?
abnormally high blood sodium concentration
What can resulty from consuming too little sodium?
What is hyponatremia?
Abnormally low blood sodiums levels
Some one who has been vomiting and having diarrhea and sweating profusely might be at risk for _____________
What are the symptoms of hyponatremia?
Distance runners who consume too much water and fail to replace sodium might be at risk for ____________
Functions of potassium:
-Fluid and electrolyte balance
-Important in muscles contractions & transmission of nerve impulses
-High potassium intake helps maintain lower blood pressure
Sources of potassium:
Fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains
Processed foods are usually ______ in potassium
Hyperkalemia can result from consuming too much________
What is Hyperkalemia?
High blood potassium level
_______________ can result from not consuming enough potassium
What is hypokalemia?
Low blood potassium level
What are some symptoms of hypokalemia?
-Loss of appetite
Those who abuse laxatives or alcohol might be at risk for _________
What is the main source of chloride in the diet?
__________ assists with maintaining fluid balance & is a component of HCI in the stomach & can be found in salt
85% of phosphorus is found in ___________ (in the body)
__________ is required for fluid balance and plays a critical role in bone formation
In addition to heavy exercise and high environmental temperatures ____________ may also occur from fever, vomiting, diarrhea, burns, poorly controlled diabetes, abuse of diuretics or laxatives.
Three common types of heat illnesses linked to dehydration are:
Painful muscle cramps that occur in the abdomen, arms or legs during intense activity in the heat would be categorized as __________
Heat cramp spasms can last from _____ to _______
If someone is experiencing a heat cramp what is immediate treatment procedure?
Stop activity immediately and cool down and rest
_________ typically occurs from intense activity in the heat; may develop after several days in high heat when fluid intake is inadequate. Symptoms include: thirst, cramps, weakness, vomiting, dizziness, sweating heavily, cool skin and elevated blood pressure & pulse.
What is the proper way to treat someone experiencing heat exhaustion?
Prompt cooling & fluid intake to prevent heatstroke from developing. Sports drinks help
____________ occurs if the body's temperature regulation mechanisms fail
What are the treatment procedures for someone experiencing heat stroke?
Immediate cooling, rest, sports drink.
contact emergency medical help immediately
What are symptoms of a heatstroke?
- Rapid pulse, high body temperature (105f+), weakness disorientation
- Hot & dry skin
How long does heat acclimation typically take?
1 - 2 weeks
Heat fit athletes sweat ________
Sooner & more
The body holds onto more water & salt when an athlete has been _________
Stable atoms contain an even number of ______________
When oxidation and reduction are not paired a ________ results
Atoms with an unpaired electron are known as ________
During metabolic reactions, an electron being transferred from the atoms of one molecule to another is known as __________
Free radical formation is generally kept under control by ____________
_____________ are plant based chemicals that help stabilize free radicals and prevent damage (beta carotene)
types of antioxidants include:
Minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals
Is vitamin E an antioxidant?
Is vitamin C an antioxidant?
is vitamin D an antioxidant?
Is beta carotene a phytochemical?
How do antioxidants fight free radicals?
by donating an electron & converting free radicals into less damaging substances
Vitamin ___s primary role is as an antioxidant in adipose tissue & cell membranes. It protects poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). After oxidized this vitamin is excrete or recycled.
Vitamin E can be found in plant sources, especially ______
What if you consume too much vitamin E?
-Chronic excess can increase risk for heart failure
-Can interfere with anticoagulant medications
Vitamin C is a fat-soluble vitamin (true or false?)
Vitamin C is a _______
Which vitamin regenerates vitamin E after oxidation, enhances the immune system, enhances the absorption of iron, functions to synthesize collagen and is an antioxidant?
Vitamin C enhances the absorption of ________
What is the recommended intake for vitamin C?
90 mg/day for men and 75 mg/day for women
How much vitamin C is in Emergen-C?
The UL of vitamin C for adults a day is ________
From what food sources is vitamin C found?
Fresh fruits, vegetables
If you get too much vitamin ____ it can cause an iron toxicity in people with hemochromatosis
Scurvy and anemia can occur when you don't consume enough ____
Too much vitamin C can lead to kidney stone formation in people with ____________
Chronic intake of >2,000 mg/day of vitamin C might result in:
Scurvy occurs after __________ of inadequate vitamin C intake
Is selenium an antioxidant?
Is selenium a major mineral?
This trace mineral/antioxidant helps with the production of thyroxine (a thyroid hormone) and neutralizes peroxide molecules
Where do we get selenium?
Stored in animal tissue
variable amounts in soil
______________ is a phytochemical in the class of chemicals called carotenoids as well as a provitamin
What is a provitamin?
An inactive precursor that must be converted to the active form of a vitamin in the body
Beta-carotene is considered an essential nutrient (true or false)
Does beta-carotene have an RDA established?
This relatively weak antioxidant
___________ is a plant pigment; red, orange, yellow, deep green
If you consume too much ____________ your skin may turn yellow or orange
Are there any symptoms for having too much or too little beta-carotene?
____________ are known to enhance immune system, protect skin from damage by UV light, & protect eyes from damage.
Fruits and vegetables that are red, orange, yellow and deep green are a good source of ________________
Vitamin A is an antioxidant and a ____________ vitamin
What are the three active forms of vitamin A?
This fat-solube is associated with vision:
Vitamin A may act as an antioxidant if it needs to (true or false)
Vitamin A is part of 2 proteins in the retina known as:
Rhodopsin & Iodopsin
Part of rod cells
Reacts to changes in light brightness
Part of cone cells
Allows different colors to be seen
A toxicity in this vitamin can cause birth defects and permanent damage to the liver and eyes while a deficiency can cause night blindness:
Too much vitamin A is high toxic (true or false)
You should avoid polar bear meat because it as 672,000-980,000 IU per ounce of ____________
__________ is a group of related diseases characterized by cells growing out of control
Cancer is composed of 3 steps:
Can a healthy diet lower your risk for developing cancer?
_______________ may contribute to reducing the risk of cancer by: Enhancing the immune system, preventing oxidative damage to the cells, inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and tumors, inhibiting the capacity of cancer cells to avoid aging and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
What are the typical treatments for cancer?
Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
What are the side effects of cancer treatment?
loss of appetite
sore mouth or throat
changes in taste & smell
Is it a good idea for someone with cancer to exercise lightly or take a walk before meals to help increase appetite?
Why should some one with cancer try to drink fluids in between meals
Drinking fluid with meals can make you feel too full
Factors that increase cancer risk include:
Family history of cancer
High body weight
Infectious agents (STDs)
Sun exposure (UV radiation)
_________ provide physical support for organs and body segments as well as protect vital organs
Bone is ____ organic structures and _____ minerals
________ is a fibrous protein and organic structure of bone which accounts for strength, flexibility, and durability. (makes up 35% of bone structure)
Minerals help with the hardness of ________
________ makes up 80% of skeleton it is a very dense tissue that is on the outer surface of all bones including many small bones (wrists, hands, feel)
Cortical (compact bone)
___________ makes up 20% of the skeleton it is the "scaffolding" on the inside of bones. It supports cortical bone and has a faster turnover rate, it is more sensitive to nutritional deficiencies.
Trabecular (spongy bone)
Bone growth & bone modeling happens in _____________
The womb and early adulthood
Bone remodeling happens in ___________
Formation of new bone is accomplished by cells called __________
Bone remodeling is a balance between ___________ and ____________
Resorption in bone modeling happens when the surface of bones is broken down by ____________
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) measures ___________ and ____________
Bone density, body composition
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) Compares bone density to that of the healthy ____-year-old
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by __________
Low bone mass
The progression of osteoporosis may be slowed by:
-Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake
-Some medications, including hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Calcium, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Floride are _______ associated with bone health
______________ forms and maintains bone and teeth structure, assists with acid-base balance, is basic, functions in transmission of nerve impulses and assists in muscle contraction
_____________ is the most abundant major mineral in the body and 99% of it is found in bone.
When blood Ca is out of this range, ________ helps to correct it
______________ is required for calcium absorption
As more calcium is consumed at one time the % that is absorbed __________
act as co-enzymes in energy metabolism
- added to energy drinks and supplements
Thiamin (Vitamin B 1)
-deficiency results in beriberi (a disease of muscle wasting and nerve damage caused by thiamin deficiency
-found in: who grains, pork, ham, tuna, black beans, green peas, spaghetti)
-discovered as a result of polishing (refining) rice
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)
- assists in the fight against oxidative damage
- an important component of coenzymes that are involved in chemical reactions occurring within the energy producing metabolic pathways.
-milk is a good source also poultry, fish and eggs
-riboflavin is destroyed when exposed to light
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
deficiency = pellagra (dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death)
-yeast, meats, cereals, legumes, and seeds are good sources
-assist in metabolism for carbohydrates and fatty acids for energy
-plays an important role in DNA replication and repair and in the process of cell differentiation
- nucleotide synthesis
- amino acid metabolism
- red blood cell synthesis
no studies suggesting consuming toxic amounts of folate in food, but it can occur with supplements --> very similar (masks) vitamin B12 defeciency
-neural tube defects
-vascular disease and homocysteine
-SPINA BIFIDA: A birth defect in which a developing baby's spinal cord fails to develop properly.
-whole grain total cereal
Folate and Pregnancy
A woman's need for folate increases during pregnancy
Folate is required for cell division and proper formation of the neural tube
The increased need for folate is critical very early (first 4 weeks) in pregnancy
Trace Mineral: Iodine
-supports energy regulation
-1 function: responsible for synthesis of thyroid hormones (regulates body temp, metabolism, reproduction growth )
-content in crops based in soil
sources: saltwater shrimp and fish, milk & dairy
toxicity (excessive consumption):
- blocks the synthesis of thyroid hormones --> may cause GOITER: (enlargement of thyroid gland that can be caused by iodine deficiency or toxicity)
cretinism: a form of mental retardation that occurs in children whose mother's experienced iodine deficiency during pregnancy
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