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Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 12-13
Terms in this set (48)
A. respond to factors that can damage tissue.
B. adapt rapidly.
C. are among the most specialized receptors.
D. are widely distributed in the brain.
E. are destroyed by very intense pain.
Pain impulses are first processed in the
A. gray matter of the posterior horn.
B. motor cortex of the cerebrum.
C. dorsal root ganglion.
D. cerebral cortex.
Special senses arise from receptors located
A. primarily in the head.
B. throughout the integumentary system.
C. in the fingertips.
D. in internal organs.
E. only in the central nervous system.
A type of receptor that does not trigger a sensation
A. measures pressure in the hands and feet.
B. monitors oxygen levels in the blood.
C. measures heat in the integument.
D. detects mechanical force in the abdomen.
E. detects visual stimuli.
Rhodopsin is found in ____ cells.
D. olfactory receptor
Which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
The hearing receptors are most closely associated with the
B. spiral organ.
The brain interprets input from sensory receptors as
A chimp adopts two orphaned tiger cubs. They live in a zoo. The chimp has a more intense visual world than his adopted offspring because
A. she is older.
B. she has lived in the zoo longer.
C. she has three types of cones that connect individually to neural pathways to the brain. The cubs only have two types.
D. she has two types of cones that connect individually to neural pathways to the brain. The cubs have three types, which causes eyestrain.
E. tigers are very prone to developing cataracts.
The range of human hearing is about
A. 2,000-3,000 vibrations per second.
B. 2,000-200,000 vibrations per second.
C. 20-20,000 vibrations per second.
D. 2-2,000 vibrations per second.
E. none of the above.
Olfactory receptors, which provide the sense of smell, are
Opiate drugs come from a
Temperature senses use two types of
C. tactile corpuscles.
D. free nerve endings.
Henry has hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. He lacks
Anosmia is loss of
Cortisol is useful in controlling inflammation reactions because it
A. decreases the permeability of capillaries.
B. increases synthesis of prostaglandins.
C. destabilizes lysosomal membranes.
D. decreases blood flow.
E. does all of the above.
ADH and oxytocin are secreted by
A. neuromuscular cells.
C. neuroendocrine cells.
D. neurosecretory cells.
Oxytocin is administered to women following childbirth to stimulate
A. less milk production.
B. uterine contractions.
C. uterine relaxation.
D. ACTH production.
E. the resumption of the menstrual cycle.
A. stimulates excessive osteoclast activity.
B. softenes bones
C. increases risk of spontaneous fractures.
D. is most often caused by a tumor.
E. all of the above
A. reduces the rate at which carbohydrates are utilized.
B. enhances the rate at which proteins are synthesized.
C. inhibits responses of the nervous system.
D. inhibits the rate at which calcium enters body fluids.
E. inhibits protein synthesis.
David Vedder was known as the "bubble boy." He was born without a thymus gland. After he had a bone marrow transplant, he left his protective bubble - a set-up that kept him free of infection - but soon died of infection. He died because
A. the thymus produces hormones that control metabolism.
B. the thymus produces white blood cells, which protect against infection.
C. his body could not produce insulin.
D. his body could not manufacture norepinephrine.
E. his body could not produce cortisol.
A. regulate metabolism.
B. aid membrane transport.
C. help regulate water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure.
D. have functions in growth, reproduction, and development.
E. do all of the above.
A hormone is a ______ and the target cell is __________.
A. protein that stimulates other cells; the source of hormone secretions
B. regulatory molecule that controls secretions of other cells; a cell that synthesizes hormones
C. molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones
D. molecule; a cell that does not have receptors.
E. none of the above
The Edmonton protocol is
A. a way to replace the thyroid gland.
B. an infusion of hormones from the adrenal cortex.
C. a pancreatic islet transplant.
D. a type of insulin.
E. none of the above.
Another name for antidiuretic hormone is
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by
A. excess sugar in the diet.
C. a disorder of the immune system.
D. an effect of aging.
E. an infection.
Target cells for releasing hormones are in the
B. anterior pituitary gland.
C. posterior pituitary gland.
D. thyroid gland.
In diabetes mellitus,
A. fatty acids and ketone bodies accumulate in the blood.
B. weight is lost.
C. the pancreas cannot produce insulin or the body cannot respond to it.
D. insulin must be taken or drugs given that help the body to utilize insulin.
E. all of the above.
Graves disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism, is caused by
A. a lack of iodine.
B. an excess of iodine.
C. an improper diet.
D. an autoimmune disorder.
E. an infection.
One of the hallmarks of Graves disease is
A. weight gain.
B. increased thirst.
C. decreased appetite.
A cochlear implant treats
A. a torn tympanic membrane.
C. conductive deafness.
D. sensorineural deafness.
E. an ear infection.
A sensation is ______, and projection of a sensation is the ______.
A. the stimulation of a receptor cell; transmission of an impulse into the brain
B. a feeling that results from sensory stimulation; brain causing it to seem to come from the receptors being stimulated
C. a good feeling from a stimulation; right side of the brain projecting the sensation to the left side, or vice versa
D. a change in membrane permeability of a receptor; transmission of an impulse into a sensory area of the brain
E. the brain's interpretation of stimulation of receptor cells; reaction to the sensation.
Receptors for the general senses are found
A. in a few clusters.
B. only in the integumentary system.
C. widely distributed throughout the body.
D. throughout the visceral organs.
E. only in the skin.
Arnold enters a darkened movie theater on a sunny summer afternoon. It takes many minutes for his eyes to adapt to the darkness because
A. it takes some time for the retina to rebuild its rhodopsin stores from opsin and retinene.
B. the rods in the eye work only in bright light, and it takes time for the cones to work in weak light.
C. the iris takes time to close after being subjected to bright light.
D. the optic nerve fatigues in bright light, and it takes time to recover.
E. the pupil is too small to admit sufficient light.
As a result of the tympanic reflex,
A. the bridge of auditory ossicles becomes less rigid.
B. vibrations are transmitted more effectively to the inner ear.
C. the malleus is pulled toward the eardrum.
D. vibrations are transmitted less effectively to the inner ear.
E. the cochlea slightly unwinds.
Fibers of the spinothalamic tract transmit information to the
A. increases the permeability of capillary walls.
B. increases the permeability of lysosomal membranes.
C. stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbohydrates.
D. promotes the storage of amino acids in the form of proteins.
E. stimulates storage of glucose as glycogen.
All hormones are
C. inorganic compounds.
D. organic compounds.
E. very large molecules.
Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
B. Anterior pituitary
D. Thyroid gland
E. Pineal gland
A nonsteroid hormone acts on a target cell by
A. causing synthesis of a second messenger.
B. stimulating cell division.
C. promoting phagocytosis.
D. directly causing protein synthesis.
E. promoting DNA replication.
Cretinism is caused by
E. a vitamin deficiency.
Growth hormone signals the release of
Irving, who is 78 years old, takes human growth hormone supplements to regain the strength of his youth. He may be disappointed, because the hormone has been shown only to
A. increase the red blood cell supply.
B. decrease fat and increase muscle mass, but not improve strength.
C. make him urinate more often.
D. increase his risk of cancer.
E. work in women.
A hormone has a half-life of 20 minutes. After an hour, ___ percent of the original number of molecules remains.
E. nearly 100
The hormone that the pineal gland secretes is
E. beta endorphin.
Simple goiter is most prevalent where the soil lacks
A. organic matter.
Hormones from the adrenal medulla increase
A. blood pressure.
B. heart rate.
C. breathing rate.
D. force of cardiac muscle contraction.
E. all of the above
A. are soluble in lipids.
B. combine with protein receptor molecules.
C. cause messenger RNA synthesis.
D. consist of complex organic rings.
E. all of the above
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