Chapter 18- Chemical Texture Services
The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is:
All chemical texture procedures involve changing the hair structure using:
Chemical & physical changes.
The exterior hair structure layer that protects the hair from damage is the:
The layer of the hair that provides strength & elasticity is the:
Hair bonds that connot be broken by heat or water are:
The natural pH of hair is between:
4.5 & 5.5.
One of the most important parts of a successful texture service is the:
Permanent waves cannot be performed if the hair is coated with:
Disulfide bonds are chemical-based side bonds that are formed when:
Sulfur atom in two adjacent chains are joined together.
The measurement used to determine the hydrogen ions in a solution is:
Potential of hydrogen.
Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to:
Allow penetration to the cortex layer.
Long, coiled polypeptide chains that are part of the hairs structure are:
The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture, color, &:
Condition of the hair.
During the hair & scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for:
Abrasions or signs of scalp disease.
Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation is:
The measurement of the number of hairs per square inch on the head is:
An indication of the strength of the side bonds is:
The second process of a permanent wave is the:
Influence change process.
In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the:
Size of the rod.
The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a:
A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand & one over is the:
Permanent wave rods are placed onto subsections of a panel called:
The position of a permanent wave rod in relation to its base section is the:
The technique of wrapping at a 90-degree angle or straigh out from the center is:
Half-off base placement.
The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method &:
A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a(n):
A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of:
A common, colorless reducing agent used in chemical texture services is:
The main reducing agent in alkaline permanents is:
Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between:
9.0 & 9.6.
The primary low pH reducing agent in acid waves:
An exothermic chemical reaction produces:
The basic components of acid waves are permanent wave solution &:
Activator & neutralizer.
An endothermic wave must be activated using a(n):
Outside heat source.
In permanent waving, the processing should be determined by the:
Strength of the solution.
Hair that is too weak to hold a curl or may be completely straight after a perm is:
The process of stopping the action of a permanent wave is:
Permanent wave solution should be rinsed from the hair for a minimum of:
A 90-degree perm wrap that minimizes stress & tension on the hair is:
Half off base.
The process of rearranging extremely curly hair into a straighter or smoother form is:
Chemical hair relaxing.
In extremely curly hair, the thinnest & weakest sections of the hair strand are located at the:
Thio chemical relaxers usually have a pH value above:
The active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers is the hydroxide:
All hydroxide relaxers can swell the hair up to:
Twice its normal diameter.
Hydroxide relaxers remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond converting it into a:
Disulfide bonds broken by hydroxide relaxers can never be:
Hydroxide ions left in the hair after a relaxer can be neutralized using a(n):
Relaxers containing one component used without any additional mixing are:
Metal hydroxide relaxers.
Sodium hydroxide relaxers (NaOH) are commonly called:
A relaxer with two components mixed immediately prior to use is:
Guanidine hydroxide relaxer.
Lithium hydroxide relaxers & potassium hydroxide relaxers are advertised & sold as:
Ammonium sulfite & ammonium bisulfite are marketed as:
Mild alternative relaxers.
Cream used to protect the skin & scalp during a hair-relaxing process is:
The strength of relaxers is determined by the concentration of:
To avoid overprocessing during a retouch relaxer application, wait until the last few minutes of processing to apply relaxer to the area:
Closest to the scalp.
Conditioners with an acidic pH that condition & normalize hair prior to shampooing are:
Curl re-formation does not straighten the hair, it simply makes the existing curl:
Larger & looser.
To avoid scalp irritation, prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer never:
Shampoo the hair.
To avoid excessive stretching of the hair when combing out tangles, use a:
Performing texture services involves powerful chemicals that must be handled with:
The term used to describe removing excess water before the application of a neutralizer is:
When checking for test curl development, the test curl should reflect:
A firm S formation.
When performing test curls, the rod should be unwound approximately:
1 1/2 turns.
Incorrect placement of the rubber band of perm rods will cause band marks or:
When working with hair that has been chemically relaxed, you should avoid using: