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a social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort.
a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life.
social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.
communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech.
a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.
focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making, and demands the group members obey orders.
more expressive, making a point of including everyone in the decision-making process.
a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.
also known as voluntary associations. pursue some goal they think is morally worthwhile.
a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a task.
rationalization of society
the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought.
to describe a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
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