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61 terms

Central Nervous System

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Cauda equina
This is where the spinal nerve roots are clustered in the spinal cord.
afferent
these type of nerves carry sensations of pain, temperature, and vibrations from the periphery to the brain. Carry sensory impulses.
efferent
these type of nerves carry sensations of pain, temperature, and vibrations from the brain to the periphery. Also, sends messages about the production of secretions. Carry motor impulses.
Frontal lobe
This is where motor impulses originate. In the motor cortex of the.....
constipation
This can be an adverse effect due to the slowing down of peristalsis by opiates.
CNS excitation
What should nurses watch for in patients on opiod analgesics (especially those with renal impairments)?
respiratory depression
which side effects of opiod therapy do those on long term therapy often not experience?
pain recurrence
what can the effect of opiod antagonists be?
Phenytoin
when giving this drug enterally, food can not be inserted in the tube 2 hours before or after as it alters the absorption.
Gingival Hyperplasia
Long term use of phenytoin can cause this side effect.
Equal-analgesic conversion chart
This is used to compare doses of opiods to doses of morphine sulfate.
cerebrum
this is the part of the brain that houses the nerve center that controls sensory and motor activities, houses nerve center that controls intelligence, and is the largest part of the brain.
acetylcholine
this is the neurotransmitter responsible for communication between nerves and muscles.
norepinephrine and epinephrine
these two neurotransmitters released by the nerves in the sympathetic branch of the ANS
dopamine
this neurotransmitter is involved in the coordination of impulses and responses (usually dealing with motor coordination)
GABA
This neurotransmitter helps inhibit nerve activity and is important in prevent over-excitability or stimulation in things such as seizures.
Serotonin
This neurotransmitter is important in arousal and sleep and in preventing depression/promoting motivation.
benzodiazepines
this type of drug is given to help with anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and agitation. Can cause sedation, dry mouth, and confusion. monitor pts for respiratory and cognitive status & safety
phenobarbital
this is a sedative/hypnotic given to help treat seizures.
antihistamines
these can be given to help induce sleep and reduce nausea.
SSRI (prozac)
this type of medication is given to help with depression, anxiety, PTSD, and chronic pain. It can produce side effects such as headache, drowsiness, dizziness, and agitation. It is important to monitor, R,C,S with pts who are taking this med.
Tricyclic Antidepressants
These are used to help relieve depression symptoms, patients with sleep disorders, and treatment of chronic pain. Side effects include sedation, fatigue, and ataxia. Monitor R,C, & S.
MAOIs
these are used to treat depression and in pts who didn't respond to other antidepressants. These are not doctors first choice. Side effects include sedation, fatigue, ataxia, headache.
Tyramine
Foods containing this must be avoided in patients who are taking MAOIs. Examples of such foods include: chocolate, coffee, bananas, avocados, yogurt, peanuts, etc.
Antipsychotics
This type of drug helps to treat though process disorders such as schizophrenia, manic behavior, dementia, drug overdoses. Side effects include hypotension, tachycardia, dry mouth, weight gain. monitor patient BP & pulse and assess for seizures
cogentin/benedryl
these two medications can be given if extrapyramidal sideffects occur with antipyschotics such as twitching, seizure.
antimanic or mood stabilizers
these medications can be used to treat mania and bipolar disorders. Side effects include: lethargy, slurred speech, coma, muscle weakness. encourage pts to drink enough fluids and salt
Monitoring drug levels
This is extremely important to do with antimanic and mood stabilizing drugs.
CNS stimulants
this type of drug is used in the treatment of ADD and narcolepsy. The side effects include nervousness, insomnia, dizziness, headache, anorexia. do frequent weight checks
Anti-Seizure Agents
This medication is used to treat seizure disorders. The side effects include ataxia, solemncence, hypotension, etc.
Dilantin/phenytoin
These two medications are especially well known for causing gingival hyperplasia
Monitoring therapeutic blood level
This is extremely important because anti-seizure agents have a limited therapeutic level
levodopa
this medication is used to treat parkisonism and parkisons disease. Symptoms include increased tremor, ataxia, agitation.
Anticholinergics
These drugs are used to help treat parkinsons disease, to reduce rigidity and tremors, and to block the effects of acetylcholine. Side effects: confusion, and NO SPSS. watch for complications with no SPSS
Muscle Relaxants
These can be used to treat muscle spasticity, muscle strain, and clinical spasticity. Side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, faitgue, hypotension. Often used in people with spinal cord injuries
narcotics
this brand of medications is used to treat severe, acute, or chronic pain. side effects include: shock, dizziness, fear, anxiety, constipation.
naloxone
this is also called narcan. They are used to reverse narcotic effects and can be used in suspected overdoses. however, they will cause the pain to return.
antimigraine agents
these drugs are used to treat acute migraines by causing vasoconstriction. side effects include numbness, tingling, weakness. should provide a dark room and supportive care
General Anesthetics
These drugs are used to treat anesthesia, hypnosis, pain control, amnesia. Side effects include: respiratory depression, restlessness, drowiness/disorientation, tachycardia.
Monitor ABCs
this is very important when giving general anesthetics to ensure to prevent overdose.
Local anesthetics
This is used to cause numbness/loss of sensation in a limited area of the body. Can also decrease bleeding. Side effects include headache, restlessness, hypotension. monitor local site and neurological status
neuromuscular blocking agents
these medications are used to cause skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or when on a ventilator. Side effects include respiratory depression and apnea.
crash cart/ ER medications
this is important when giving neuromuscular blocking agents in order to counteract potential overdoses.
diazepam
this is an example benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety)
fluoxetine
this is an example of an SSRI (depression treatment)
imipramine
this is an example of a trycyclic anti depressant
phenelzine
this is an example of an MAOI (depression)
chloropromazine
this is an example of an antipsychotic drug used to treat dementia/drug overdoses/though process disorders
lithium
this is an example of an antimanic/ mood stabilizer
methylphenidate
this is an example of a CNS stimulant used to treat ADHD
sinemet/mirapex
these are two examples of levodopa drugs used to treat parkinsons disease
biperiden/duphenhydramine
these are two drugs with are anticholinergics used to help reduce drooling/tremors/etc.
ergots/triptans
these are two examples of antimigraine agents
cerebellum
this part of the brain is responsbile for maintaining muscle tone, controlling balance, and coordinating muscle movement.
limbic system
this system in the brain is responsible for emotional and sexual arousal.
reticular activating system
this system in the brain functions as an alerting system for the cerebral cortex.
brain stem
This part of the brain provides pathways for nerve fibers, provides vital autonomic reactions, and serves as the origin for 10/12 cranial nerves.
neurons
these are comprised of one axon and many dendrites, is the primary unit of the nervous system, and does both conductivity and excitability.
axon
these carry information away from the cell bodies
dendrites
these carry impulses toward the cell bodies
opiod naive
this state can occur when a person has been prescribed opiods and the drug is used infrequently, and the drug is prescribed for acute pain relief.