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hard ass test #1
actually just a & p 1 test 1
Terms in this set (149)
study of structure/form
Study of function
to examine by touch
listening to sounds within the body
listening for abnormality
Father of Medicine, Greek physician
Greek physician for gladiators
Father of Anatomy, first to perform autopsy
Described the circulation of blood to and from the heart
coined the term "cell"
Invented the microscope
schleden and Schwann
cell theory; all living things are composed of cells
All cells come from other cells
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
divides body into front and back
divides the body into larry and randy
horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
what do organs be in
what cavity has no bony protection?
what is the purpose of a membrane
line and cover, protection, division
Purpose of serous fluid
lubricant and reduces friction
what a membrane is inflamed...
less fluid is produced
space between bones at a synovial joint, contains fluid
Anything that has mass and takes up space
can most elements go through all 3 states of matter?
hell yeah fam
the amount of matter in an object
the force of gravity on an object
the ability to do work
energy of motion
chemical energy comes from what?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
energy molecule needed for many reactions in the body. we make this shit constantly
radiant energy comes from where?
the sun, hun.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars, oxygen is released as a byproduct and we need oxygen to live and breathe
An organism that makes its own food
An organism that cannot make its own food, it must consume to obtain energy and nutrient requirements
what makes up everything
Basic unit of matter
How many naturally occurring elements are there?
92 ish possibly 93 my teacher was not absolutely sure on that one
simplest and most common atom
number of protons
number of protons + neutrons
no charge (and we do not want this at all it big bad)
A charged atom
a BACK MFn BONE makes up 96% of all living things
what are the four most common elements
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
required by an organism in only minute quantities but it still be important
variation of an atom
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
2 or more atoms bonded together
two or more ELEMENTS bonded together
2+ components that are physically mixed
uniform in composition
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances, substance in the greatest amount
A substance that is dissolved in a solution, present in smaller amounts than the solvent
habitable zone able to sustain life
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances able to see through, cannot see the path of light
A mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out.
a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout, light scatters
to change reversibly from a fluid state to a more solid (gel) state
a colloidal dispersion of a liquid in a liquid
A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration, ex: blood
is it a mixture?
-no chemical bonds
-components can be separated
bonds are indicated by a?
very big stable
transfer of electrons
ex: carbs, proteins
ex: surface tension in water
occurs when bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
a reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to another. the thing with the electrons lost is the oxidized, the thing that gains is reduced and i promise i read that right but its real big confusing
how to get a faster reaction
temperature increase, smaller particle size, higher concentrations
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used in the reaction itself
Does not contain carbon
be having carbon
60-80% of ALL LIVINGG things
most of cell volume
high heat capacity & vaporization
high surface tension
Ionic compounds that can be formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen ions of an acid with another positive ion
ionic compound with a positive and negative charge
what do PH stand for? like the scale?
potential of hydrogen
What pH is blood?
What pH is an acid?
less than 7
What pH is alkaline?
more hydrogen means...
sour, ph less than 7, releases hydrogen ions H+, covalent bonds
bitter, ph more than 7, release hydroxide (OH-), accept protons, feel slippery
substances that minimize changes in pH
normally end in "ase"
effective even in small amounts
force reactions to occur, can speed them by over a milli x
produced inactive and only active when needed
absolutely necessary because apparently our bodies suck and actually perform functions way to slow
What are the 2 nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
contains chromosomes and genetic codes
only molecule that can replicate itself
double stranded and helix shaped
I'm supposed to remember 1953 i think that's when it was discovered when u come across this card again go check please
contains ribose sugar
made by the DNA
can leave the cell
aids in protein synthesis
pH below 7.35, too much hydrogen
pH above 7.45, too much hydroxide
the answer is me i am heavy metal
actually they're big toxic (ex: arsenic, mercury, lead)
click this card for a surprise
if u see this card take a break girl u need it. hydrate and text your mans back.
condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism. a form of acidosis
radiation sickness is caused by?
excessive radiation. could have guessed that. not worth making a flash card for really.
Who named the cell?
how many cells we got in our bodies
106 TRILLION damn
what happened in 1839?
the cell theory !! most important theory every according to my teacher
the cell theory
all living things are made of cells
all activities are dictated by cells
what did virchow add to the cell theory?
all living things come from cells
composite cells have...
all cell features
the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell, phospholipid bilayer
fluid mosaic model
Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.
selective, help things cross the membrane
speed metabolic pathways
intercellular joining proteins
hook cells together - adhesion, normally temporary
a cell's ability to distinguish one type of cell from another. other cells will be attacked
hold things in place, maintain shape, help with binding and movement
why the membrane all squiggly?
for increased surface area
projections that increase the cell's surface area
Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid
ex: digestive tract and skin
Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart
provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells, allow chemicals to pass between, electrically excitable
ex: heart and embryo
does not require ATP
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, scattered evenly, passive
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
force ions and water into capillary walls of kidneys, passive
vesicular, move from inside of the cell to the outside
ex: hormones, waste
vesicular, move from outside of the cell to inside
Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes, membrane encloses particles into a vesicle, active
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells that are bad and we do not want
ex: white blood cells
finding things that are not allowed to be there, like a bouncer in a bar
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes, like drinking a glass of water
the voltage difference across a membrane
membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a specific function
substances for storage use, not in all cells
fills empty space in the cell
site of most processes in the cell
holds organelles and inclusions
produces ATP in its double layered membrane
self-replicating, with its own DNA and RNA
site of respiration
large numbers in cardiac and muscle cells
Requires oxygen; produces lots of energy (36-38 Units of ATP)
Respiration that does not require oxygen, 2 ATP
bond amino acids into proteins
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
sends and stores proteins
found in secretory cells like the liver
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
no ribosomes :(
continuation of the rough ER
synthesis of lipids, cholesterol, sex hormones
can break down stored glycogen
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
large numbers in excretory cells
when lysosomes rupture, the cell digests itself, not good
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
body attacks itself
a disorder caused by lacking lysosomes that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death; there is no treatment
signs: deafness, blindness, retardation
similar to lysosomes
Produce hydrogen peroxide; detoxify harmful substances
byproduct of respiration
numerous in liver and kidneys
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
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