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Ulysses Grant's status as a military hero enabled him to become a successful president who stood
above partisan politics.


The scandals of the Grant administration included bribes and corrupt dealings reaching to the
cabinet and the vice president of the United States.


The Liberal Republican movement's political skill enabled it to clean up the corruption of the
Grant administration.


The severe economic downturn of the 1870s caused business failures, labor conflict, and battles over currency.


The close, fiercely contested elections of the Gilded Age reflected the deep divisions between
Republicans and Democrats over national issues.


The battles between the "Stalwart" and "Half-Breed" Republican factions were mainly over who
would get patronage and spoils.


The disputed Hayes-Tilden election was settled by a political deal in which Democrats got the
presidency and Republicans got economic and political concessions.


The Compromise of 1877 purchased political peace between North and South by sacrificing
southern blacks and removing federal troops in the South.


The sharecropping and tenant farming systems forced many Southern blacks into permanent
economic debt and dependency.


Western hostility to Chinese immigrants arose in part because the Chinese provided a source of
cheap labor that competed with white workers.


By reducing politicians' use of patronage, the new civil-service system inadvertently made them
more dependent on big campaign contributors.


The Cleveland-Blaine campaign of 1884 was conducted primarily as a debate about the issues of taxes and the tariff.


The Republican party in the post-Civil War era relied heavily on the political support of veterans'
groups, to which it gave substantial pension benefits in return.


The Populist party's attempt to form a coalition of farmers and workers failed partly because of
the racial division between poor whites and blacks in the South.


President Cleveland's deal to save the gold standard by borrowing $65 million from J.P. Morgan enhanced his popularity among both Democrats and Populists.

corner the gold market.

Financiers Jim Fisk and Jay Gould tried to involve the Grant administration in a corrupt scheme to

the journalistic exposes of The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast.

Boss Tweed's widespread corruption was finally brought to a halt by

railroad corporation fraud and the subsequent bribery of congressmen.

The Credit Mobilier scandal involved

his toleration of corruption and his loyalty to crooked friends.

Grant's greatest failing in the scandals that plagued his administration was

inflation of the money supply by issuing more paper or silver currency.

The depression of the 1870s led to increasing demands for

strong party loyalties, high voter turnout, and few disagreements on national issues

The political system of the "Gilded Age" was generally characterized by


The primary goal for which all factions in both political parties contended during the Gilded Age

Republicans got the presidency in exchange for the final removal of federal troops from the

The key tradeoff featured in the Compromise of 1877 was that

The forced relocation of black farmers to the Kansas and Oklahoma "dust bowl"

Which of the following was NOT among the changes that affected African Americans in the South
after federal troops were withdrawn in the Compromise of 1877?

the system of unequal segregation between the races.

The Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson upholding "separate but equal" public facilities
in effect legalized

the growing threat of class warfare in response to the economic depression of the mid-1870s.

The great railroad strike of 1877 revealed

a Congressional law to prohibit any further Chinese immigration.

The final result of the widespread anti-Chinese agitation in the West was

a mentally unstable disappointed office seeker.

President James Garfield was assassinated by

free silver, a graduated income tax, and government ownership of the railroads, telegraph,
and telephone.

In its first years, the Populist Party advocated, among other things

borrowed $65 million dollars from J.P. Morgan and other bankers in order to save the monetary gold standard.

Grover Cleveland stirred a furious storm of protest when, in response to the extreme financial
crisis of the 1890s, he

Waving the Bloody Shirt

The symbol of the Republican political tactic of attacking
Democrats with reminders of the Civil War

Credit Mobilier

Corrupt construction company whose bribes and payoffs to congressmen and others created a major Grant administration scandal

Liberal Republican

Short-lived third party of 1872 that attempted to curb Grant administration corruption


Precious metal that "soft-money" advocates demanded be coined again to compensate for the "Crime of '73"

Greenback Labor

"Soft-money" third party that polled over a million votes and elected fourteen congressmen in 1878 by advocating inflation

Gilded Age

Mark Twain's sarcastic name for the post-Civil War era, which emphasized its atmosphere of greed and corruption

Grand Army of the Republic

Civil War Union veterans' organization that became a potent
political bulwark of the Republican party in the late
nineteenth century

Stalwart Faction

Republican party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling
that opposed all attempts at civil-service reform

Half-Breed Faction

Republican party faction led by Senator James G. Blaine that
paid lip service to government reform while still battling for
patronage and spoils

Compromise of 1877

The complex political agreement between Republicans and
Democrats that resolved the bitterly disputed election of


Asian immigrant group that experienced discrimination on
the West Coast

Civil Service Commission

System of choosing federal employees on the basis of merit
rather than patronage introduced by the Pendleton Act of

McKinley's Tariff

Sky-high Republican tariff of 1890 that caused widespread
anger among farmers in the Midwest and the South

People's Party

Insurgent political party that gained widespread support
among farmers in the 1890s

"Grandfather Clauses"

Notorious clause in southern voting laws that exempted from
literacy tests and poll taxes anyone whose ancestors had
voted in 1860, thereby excluding blacks

Ulysses S. Grant

Great military leader whose presidency foundered in corruption
and political ineptitude

Jim Fisk

Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S.
gold market nearly succeeded in 1869

Boss Tweed

Heavyweight New York political boss whose widespread fraud
landed him in jail in 1871

Horace Greeley

Colorful, eccentric newspaper editor who carried the Liberal
Republican and Democratic banners against Grant in 1872

Jay Cooke

Wealthy New York financier whose bank collapse in 1873 set
off an economic depression

Denis Kearney

Irish-born leader of the anti-Chinese movement in California

Tom Watson

Radical Populist leader whose early success turned sour, and
who then became a vicious racist

Roscoe Conkling

Imperious New York senator and leader of the "Stalwart"
faction of Republicans

James G. Blaine

Charming but corrupt "Half-Breed" Republican senator and
presidential nominee in 1884

Rutherford B. Hayes

Winner of the contested 1876 election who presided over the
end of Reconstruction and a sharp economic downturn

James Garfield

President whose assassination after only a few months in office
spurred the passage of a civil service law

Jim Crow

Term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s

Grover Cleveland

First Democratic president since the Civil War; defender of
laissez faire economics and low tariffs

William Jennings Bryan

Eloquent young Congressman from Nebraska who became the
most prominent advocate of "free silver" in the early 1890s

J.P. Morgan

Enormously wealthy banker whose secret bailout of the federal
government in 1895 aroused fierce public anger

Caused numerous scandals during President
Grant's administration

Favor-seeking business-people and corrupt

Forced Boss Tweed out of power and into jail

The New York Times and cartoonist
Thomas Nast

Led to the formation of the Liberal Republican
party in 1872

Upright Republicans'. disgust with Grant
administration scandals

Caused unemployment, railroad strikes, and a
demand for "cheap money"

The economic crash of the mid-1870s

Created fierce partisan competition and high
voter turnouts, even though the parties agreed
on most national issues

Local cultural, moral, and religious

Led to the withdrawal of troops from the South
and the virtual end of federal efforts to protect
black rights there

The Compromise of 1877 that settled the
disputed Hayes-Tilden election

Caused anti-Chinese violence and restrictions
against Chinese immigration

White workers' resentment of Chinese labor

Helped ensure passage of the Pendleton Act

Public shock at Garfield's assassination by

Induced Grover Cleveland to negotiate a secret
loan from J. P. Morgan's banking syndicate

The 1890s depression and the drain of gold
from the federal treasury

Led to failure of the third party revolt in the
South and a growing racial backlash

The inability of Populist leaders to
overcome divisions between white and
black farmers

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