70 terms

Ch. 23

Ulysses Grant's status as a military hero enabled him to become a successful president who stood
above partisan politics.
The scandals of the Grant administration included bribes and corrupt dealings reaching to the
cabinet and the vice president of the United States.
The Liberal Republican movement's political skill enabled it to clean up the corruption of the
Grant administration.
The severe economic downturn of the 1870s caused business failures, labor conflict, and battles over currency.
The close, fiercely contested elections of the Gilded Age reflected the deep divisions between
Republicans and Democrats over national issues.
The battles between the "Stalwart" and "Half-Breed" Republican factions were mainly over who
would get patronage and spoils.
The disputed Hayes-Tilden election was settled by a political deal in which Democrats got the
presidency and Republicans got economic and political concessions.
The Compromise of 1877 purchased political peace between North and South by sacrificing
southern blacks and removing federal troops in the South.
The sharecropping and tenant farming systems forced many Southern blacks into permanent
economic debt and dependency.
Western hostility to Chinese immigrants arose in part because the Chinese provided a source of
cheap labor that competed with white workers.
By reducing politicians' use of patronage, the new civil-service system inadvertently made them
more dependent on big campaign contributors.
The Cleveland-Blaine campaign of 1884 was conducted primarily as a debate about the issues of taxes and the tariff.
The Republican party in the post-Civil War era relied heavily on the political support of veterans'
groups, to which it gave substantial pension benefits in return.
The Populist party's attempt to form a coalition of farmers and workers failed partly because of
the racial division between poor whites and blacks in the South.
President Cleveland's deal to save the gold standard by borrowing $65 million from J.P. Morgan enhanced his popularity among both Democrats and Populists.
corner the gold market.
Financiers Jim Fisk and Jay Gould tried to involve the Grant administration in a corrupt scheme to
the journalistic exposes of The New York Times and cartoonist Thomas Nast.
Boss Tweed's widespread corruption was finally brought to a halt by
railroad corporation fraud and the subsequent bribery of congressmen.
The Credit Mobilier scandal involved
his toleration of corruption and his loyalty to crooked friends.
Grant's greatest failing in the scandals that plagued his administration was
inflation of the money supply by issuing more paper or silver currency.
The depression of the 1870s led to increasing demands for
strong party loyalties, high voter turnout, and few disagreements on national issues
The political system of the "Gilded Age" was generally characterized by
The primary goal for which all factions in both political parties contended during the Gilded Age
Republicans got the presidency in exchange for the final removal of federal troops from the
The key tradeoff featured in the Compromise of 1877 was that
The forced relocation of black farmers to the Kansas and Oklahoma "dust bowl"
Which of the following was NOT among the changes that affected African Americans in the South
after federal troops were withdrawn in the Compromise of 1877?
the system of unequal segregation between the races.
The Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson upholding "separate but equal" public facilities
in effect legalized
the growing threat of class warfare in response to the economic depression of the mid-1870s.
The great railroad strike of 1877 revealed
a Congressional law to prohibit any further Chinese immigration.
The final result of the widespread anti-Chinese agitation in the West was
a mentally unstable disappointed office seeker.
President James Garfield was assassinated by
free silver, a graduated income tax, and government ownership of the railroads, telegraph,
and telephone.
In its first years, the Populist Party advocated, among other things
borrowed $65 million dollars from J.P. Morgan and other bankers in order to save the monetary gold standard.
Grover Cleveland stirred a furious storm of protest when, in response to the extreme financial
crisis of the 1890s, he
Waving the Bloody Shirt
The symbol of the Republican political tactic of attacking
Democrats with reminders of the Civil War
Credit Mobilier
Corrupt construction company whose bribes and payoffs to congressmen and others created a major Grant administration scandal
Liberal Republican
Short-lived third party of 1872 that attempted to curb Grant administration corruption
Precious metal that "soft-money" advocates demanded be coined again to compensate for the "Crime of '73"
Greenback Labor
"Soft-money" third party that polled over a million votes and elected fourteen congressmen in 1878 by advocating inflation
Gilded Age
Mark Twain's sarcastic name for the post-Civil War era, which emphasized its atmosphere of greed and corruption
Grand Army of the Republic
Civil War Union veterans' organization that became a potent
political bulwark of the Republican party in the late
nineteenth century
Stalwart Faction
Republican party faction led by Senator Roscoe Conkling
that opposed all attempts at civil-service reform
Half-Breed Faction
Republican party faction led by Senator James G. Blaine that
paid lip service to government reform while still battling for
patronage and spoils
Compromise of 1877
The complex political agreement between Republicans and
Democrats that resolved the bitterly disputed election of
Asian immigrant group that experienced discrimination on
the West Coast
Civil Service Commission
System of choosing federal employees on the basis of merit
rather than patronage introduced by the Pendleton Act of
McKinley's Tariff
Sky-high Republican tariff of 1890 that caused widespread
anger among farmers in the Midwest and the South
People's Party
Insurgent political party that gained widespread support
among farmers in the 1890s
"Grandfather Clauses"
Notorious clause in southern voting laws that exempted from
literacy tests and poll taxes anyone whose ancestors had
voted in 1860, thereby excluding blacks
Ulysses S. Grant
Great military leader whose presidency foundered in corruption
and political ineptitude
Jim Fisk
Bold and unprincipled financier whose plot to corner the U.S.
gold market nearly succeeded in 1869
Boss Tweed
Heavyweight New York political boss whose widespread fraud
landed him in jail in 1871
Horace Greeley
Colorful, eccentric newspaper editor who carried the Liberal
Republican and Democratic banners against Grant in 1872
Jay Cooke
Wealthy New York financier whose bank collapse in 1873 set
off an economic depression
Denis Kearney
Irish-born leader of the anti-Chinese movement in California
Tom Watson
Radical Populist leader whose early success turned sour, and
who then became a vicious racist
Roscoe Conkling
Imperious New York senator and leader of the "Stalwart"
faction of Republicans
James G. Blaine
Charming but corrupt "Half-Breed" Republican senator and
presidential nominee in 1884
Rutherford B. Hayes
Winner of the contested 1876 election who presided over the
end of Reconstruction and a sharp economic downturn
James Garfield
President whose assassination after only a few months in office
spurred the passage of a civil service law
Jim Crow
Term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s
Grover Cleveland
First Democratic president since the Civil War; defender of
laissez faire economics and low tariffs
William Jennings Bryan
Eloquent young Congressman from Nebraska who became the
most prominent advocate of "free silver" in the early 1890s
J.P. Morgan
Enormously wealthy banker whose secret bailout of the federal
government in 1895 aroused fierce public anger
Caused numerous scandals during President
Grant's administration
Favor-seeking business-people and corrupt
Forced Boss Tweed out of power and into jail
The New York Times and cartoonist
Thomas Nast
Led to the formation of the Liberal Republican
party in 1872
Upright Republicans'. disgust with Grant
administration scandals
Caused unemployment, railroad strikes, and a
demand for "cheap money"
The economic crash of the mid-1870s
Created fierce partisan competition and high
voter turnouts, even though the parties agreed
on most national issues
Local cultural, moral, and religious
Led to the withdrawal of troops from the South
and the virtual end of federal efforts to protect
black rights there
The Compromise of 1877 that settled the
disputed Hayes-Tilden election
Caused anti-Chinese violence and restrictions
against Chinese immigration
White workers' resentment of Chinese labor
Helped ensure passage of the Pendleton Act
Public shock at Garfield's assassination by
Induced Grover Cleveland to negotiate a secret
loan from J. P. Morgan's banking syndicate
The 1890s depression and the drain of gold
from the federal treasury
Led to failure of the third party revolt in the
South and a growing racial backlash
The inability of Populist leaders to
overcome divisions between white and
black farmers