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Chapter 23: The Circulatory System

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Circulatory System
- facilitates the exchange of materials
- provides an internal transport system the brings substances and gases close to cells
3 Components of the Circulatory System
1. fluid materials can be transported or dissolved
2. network of vessels/ tubes
3. pump to drive fluid
2 Types of Circulatory Systems
1. Open System
2. Closed System
Open Circulatory System
- insects and plants
- blood is not always enclosed in tubes
- have open-ended vessels
- fluid directly bathes tissues
Closed Circulatory System
- vertebrates
- blood is confined in tubes
- blood is separate from interstitial fluid that directly bathes (surrounds) in tissues
Cardiovascular System
Heart: artery, arteriole
Lungs: capillaries
Heart: venules, veins
Artery
- majority carry oxygenated blood (excluding the pulmonary artery)
- lead away from heart
Arteriole
smaller arteries
Capillary
- smallest blood vessels
- one cell thick
- create venules
Venule
- small veins
- come together and form veins
Vein
- carry deoxygenated blood (excluding the pulmonary vein)
- bring blood back to heart
- created from venules
Protists
- no circulatory or respiratory systems
- cells have direct with environment
- diffusion
- cytoplasmic streaming- cytoplasm is made mostly of water materials, so it moves the material
Hydra
- no circulatory or respiratory systems
- diffusion
- outer layer- ectoderm
- inner layer- endoderm
- water goes in through mouth, then to gastrovascular cavity, lastly to body wall
Earthworm
- blood carries gases and waste ( blood contains hemoglobin)
- has 5 aortic arches (hearts) which pump blood
- closed circluatory system
- respiratory surface- skin
Fish
1. Blood goes to gills
2. Gas exchange occurs
3. Arteries
4. Arterioles
5. Capillaries
6. Deoxygenated blood goes to heart
7. Venules
8. Veins
9. Back to gills
- Closed circulatory system
Grasshopper
- open ciculatory system
- only deoxygenated blood
- colorless blood- lacks hemoglobin (transports nutrients and waste, no gases)
- blood goes from dorsel --> anterior. open vessels. low pressure
- blood keeps moving through spaces by breathing and body movements
General Characteristics of the Heart
- double pump
- right side pumps deoxygenated blood
- left side pumps oxygenated blood
- larger than your fist
- located beneath sternum and to the left
- composed of cardiac muscle (only found in heart)
- involuntary (can't make heart contract)
- single celled
- cardiac cells are branched forming an interlocking
network
- strong to withstand contraction
Heart Structure
- covered by pericardium- tough protective covering
- 4 chambers: Right atrium and ventricle, Left atrium and ventricle
- septum- separates right and left sides preventing the mixing of blood
Patterns of Circulation
1. Pulmonary circuit
2. Systemic Circuit
3. Coronary
4. Renal
5. Hepatic-portal
Pulmonary Circuit
blood flow between heart and lungs
Systemic Circuit
blood flow between heart and rest of body
Coronary
blood supply to the heart muscle
Renal
quarter of blood goes to kidneys to filter waste
Hepatic-portal
- deals with liver
- nutrients are picked up by capillaries in small intestine and are transported to liver
- excess nutrients, such as glucose stored as glycogen, can be stored in liver
- detoxification center
Blood Flow Through Cardiovascular System
1. Deoxygenated blood goes in through inferior and superior vena cavas
2. Right atrium
3. Through tricuspid valve
4. Into right ventricle
5. Pulmonary semilunar valve
6. Pulmonary trunk
7. Pulmonary arteries
8. Lungs
9. Pulmonary veins
10. Left atrium
11. Bicuspid (mitral) valve
12. Left ventricle
13. Aortic semilunar valve
14. Aorta
15. Travels through rest of body back to superior and inferior vena cavas
Cardiac Cycle
- 2 phases- diastolic and systolic
- can have murmurs
- open- lub= semilunar diastoly
- dub= ventricular systoly
Diastoly
- relaxing
- in ventricular diastoly
- atrialventricular valves fill with blood (would be open)
- semilunar valves are closed
Systoly
- contraction of ventricles
- blood goes to open semilunar valves
- AV valves close to prevent backflow of blood
Murmurs
- valves aren't closing properly and you get a backflow of blood
- can get it through infection (infection= strep throat untreated. bacteria attacks. rheumatic)
- can be present at birth
Control of Heart Rate and Pacemaker
1. Pacemaker generates electric pulse
2. Impulses spread through atria
3. Impulses reach the ventricles
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
- pacemaker
- in right atrium
- specialized group of muscle cells initiates an electrical impulse for the heart to contract
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
- located in septum between atria
- relays the impulse to the muscle cells of ventricles
Artificial Pacemaker
- implanted device to aid pacemaker
Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
QRS- ventricles- signals contraction through electricity
P- atria
T- ventricles relaxing
EKG Rate is Regulated by...
1. Vagus Nerve- slows heart reate
2. Cardioaccelerator- speeds heart rate
3. Epinephrine (adrenaline)- increases heart rate
4. Temperature: hot- speeds up
cold- slows down
Blood Vessels
- pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood
- arteries and veins- 3 layers
- epithelium
- smooth muscle
- connective tissue
- vein- smooth muscle is thinner
- have valves (prevent backflow of blood)
- capillaries- one layer = epithelium
- blood vessels branching
- site for diffusion
Skeletal Muscle
- squeezes vein during contraction
- pushes blood upward to heart
Blood Pressure
- the force blood exerts against the wall of blood vessels (from heart to capillaries)
- pressure in arteries is highest
- walls have to stretch
Pulse
the rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood during...
Sphygmomanometer
instrument that measures blood pressure
- has 2 numbers : systolic pressure/ diastolic pressure
Systolic Pressure
- pressure during systoly
- artery expands
Diastolic Pressure
- pressure that remains in arteries during diastoly
- artery shrinks
Hypertension
- high blood pressure
- asymptomatic- can't tell if you have hypertension just by looking (can cause stroke)
Pressure in Capillary Beds
- has to be low for blood tostay slow for diffusion
- precapillary sphincters muscles- prevent blood flow through capillaries to get more for other parts of body (ex. happens when you immediately start running)
Pressure in Veins
nearly 0
Vericose Veins
- can be caused with weight gain
- veins stretch
- valves weaken and don't close fully