Apologia Advanced Biology Module 14 Study Guide

3. As air is exhaled, which structures are encountered first: the vocal folds or the vestibular folds?
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There are two factors that aid in the collapse of the lungs during expiration. When one or both are missing or reduced the result is a common disease. What is the name of the disease and the lack of which factor causes it?Emphysema, when the small alveoli join to make a large alveoli.When in a healthy person's life is lung compliance at its lowest?Right after being born and taking your first breath.What are the two factors that help prevent total lung collapse and aid inspiration?Surfactant and negative pressure within pleural cavity.When either factor that helps prevent total lung collapse and aid inspiration is missing or reduced, two separate maladies occur. What are the maladies, and with what factors are they associated?Pneumothorax occurs when the negative pressure within pleural cavity is missing or reduced. Infant respiratory distress syndrome occurs when there is a lack of surfactant.18. If the pH of blood is on the increase, what will happen to the rate and depth of ventilation?The rate and depth of ventilation will decrease.19. List the four stages of aerobic respiration and what is formed in each stage.-Glycolysis forms 2 ATP -Oxidation of pyruvate forms 2 CO2 -Citric acid cycle forms 2 ATP and 4 CO2 -Electron transport chain forms 32 ATP and 6 H2O17. A student says that the body monitors the partial pressure of oxygen in your blood and then sends messages to the respiratory control centers to increase or decrease the rate and depth of ventilation based on the results of the monitoring. What is wrong with this statement?Carbon dioxide not oxygen controls the rate and depth of ventilation.15. Describe the Hering-Breuer reflex.It prevents the lungs from overstretching them during vigorous exercise.16. What parts of the CNS control the muscles of breathing?The pons and medulla oblongata.14. Suppose that, at some instant, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood near the tissues is about 70 mmHg. What can you conclude is happening to the blood? Would the partial pressure of carbon dioxide most likely be 35 mmHg, 43 mmHg, or 49 mmHg?There is less oxygen entering the blood and more carbon dioxide. The partial pressure would be 49 mmHg.12. What is pneumonia? What does it do to inhibit repsiration?...