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Medical Terminology Midterm Flashcards - Ch. 6
Terms in this set (124)
fuse or bind
ulna, elbow, forearm
Dento-, Dont/o-, Odonto-
forehead or front
flank and ileum (twisted)
thin, flat part of vertebra
bone marrow, spinal cord
opening to nose
back of neck
back of head
Oro-, Os- Stoma-
mouth or opening
palm of hand
Pecto-, Stetho-, Thoraco-
Pedo-, Podo-, Pes
back of knee
digits, fingers, and toes
sternum or breastbone
Teno-, Tendo-, Tendino-
stretcher, tense, or tone
jointed or dried
Skelet/on (dried up, to fasten)
*206 Bones of body skeleton
*126 Bones in Appendicular Skeleton and 80 in Axial Skeleton
*cartilage (chondro-) is gristle-like connective tissue structures between bone
*ligaments (ligo-) are bands of connective tissue that hold bones together
*axial longitudinal ligaments are important supports for spine
Ankyl/osis (fusion or stiff joint/condition)
AKA Spinal Fusion, Ankylosing Spondylitis, or Vertebral Spondylosis
*immobility and fixation of joint caused by disease, trauma, or surgery; congenital etiology possibly
*usually caused by degenerative arthritis
*partial forward dislocation of one vertebrae over the one below it
*most often occurs at 5th lumbar vertebrae, which slips over first part of five fused sacral vertebrae
*severe pain, can lead to paralysis
*paget's disease causes softening of bone (osteo/malacia)
*slippage measured in degrees
Rheumat/oid Arthritis (discharge through/resembling: joint/inflamed)
*Common types: osteo/arthr/itis, rheumatoid arthr/itis and gout
*RA: acute or chronic inflamed joints accompanied by pain, swelling, and structural and functional changes of joints
*Rheumat/oid arthritis means literally "discharge/resembles (like)" from "joint/inflamed"
*36 and 55 years (mainly women)
*infections, trauma, digestive, or neurological disturbances, rheumatic fever, metabolic disturbances, tumors, etc.
1. Bone destruction
2. Muscle atrophy (loss of mobility)
3. Bone and Fiber Ankylosis
Rheumat/oid Arthr/itis and Treatment
Rheuma (flowing through) -Oid (resembling) Arthron (joint) -Itis (inflammation)
*causes stiffness, swelling, pain, and major changes in syn/ovi/al capsule of joint
*Still's disease is juvenile form
*immune system mistakenly attacks synovial membrane surrounding joint, causing it to thicken and produce abnormal fluid
*drugs relieve symptoms in most cases
*Boron neutron capture syn/ov/ec/tom/y uses a boron-10 solution containing potassium and some hydrogen
*boron quickly decays and kills inflamed joint syn/ovi/um
*anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, etc.
Osteo/arthr/itis (AKA De/generative Arthr/itis)
osteo (bone) arthron (joint) -itis (inflammation)
*bone overgrowth and articular cartilage destruction
*major changes include osteo/hyper/troph/y and cartilagino/dys/troph/y
*weight-bearing joints of body
*lipping and spurring of bone
*increase in amt. of bone causes wearing out of joint cartilage
*Gutta means "a drop" in Latin
*form of arthr/itis
*increase in uric acid crystals in blood
*larger and heavier than blood cells, so gravity pulls them into joints, particularly in hands and feet, knees, elbow or any body joint
*first acute attack occurs at night with change of body position providing relief if severe
*diet changes and anti-uric acid drugs used for treatment
*minimum of 3 liters of water should be consumed daily
*bed rest recommended along with elevation of joint, compression of joint, pain relievers, and new diet
x-ray record of a joint
*determine joint, cartilage, or ligament damage
Rotator Cuff Surgery
a trauma that causes tearing of tendons and/or muscles of the shoulder
Avuls/ion (to tear away)
*tearing away forcefully of part of a structure
*surgery is required and often seen in fingers, toes, hands, feet, and joints
*result in abnormal laxity or movement of body parts
Bunion (bunge means swelling (FR.) and turnip (GK.)
*Swelling of inflamed bursa of a foot especially meta/tarso/phalangeal joint of great toe
*Thickening of adjacent skin and forcing of big toe inward toward other toes of same foot (adduction) or toward middle of foot
Bursa (leather sac) -Itis (inflammation)
*pad-like sac or cavity found in connective tissue in vicinity of joints
*contains syn/ovial fluid called syn/ovia which reduces friction btw. tendons and bones, tendons and ligaments, and etc.
*Achilles form is at heel btw. Achilles tendon and calcaneus
*Olecranon form is at elbow joint lying btw. olecranon process and skin
*Patella form is one of several bursa in area of knee
*most seen in those who have osteoporosis
*marked by abnormal deposits of lime salt or calcium in tissues
*often seen with progressive system sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis
Carp/al Tunnel Syn/drome (CTS)
Karpos (wrist) Syn/drome (together/running)
*canal in wrist bound by osteo/fibrous materials through which flexor tendons and medial nerves pass
*characterized by soreness, tenderness, and weakness of muscles of thumb caused by pressure (median nerve)
*if conservative therapy fails, surgical relief of tendon pressure may be required
Locare (to place)
*displacement of any body part
*incomplete or partial to complete
*caused by injury or disease, but may be congenital
Hip Dis/location, Dis/articulation
Sub/lux/ation (lesser/dislocation/process of)
Sub- (under, less than)
*partial or incomplete dislocation
*chiropractors and osteopaths view sub/luxation as a partial dislocation of vertebral facets or bones, and are correctable by adjustments
*Dentistry: loosening of support tissue of teeth, usually by disease or injury
Inter/vertebral Foramen (I.V.F.)
foramen or openings contain spinal nerve, arteries, veins, lymphatic vessels, and connective tissue in a very small opening between vertebrae
Pain and tenderness in the fibro/muscular tissues.
*It may recur and become chronic.
*Stiffness, muscle aches, locally inflamed muscle and connective tissue.
*Etiology: strains, tears, any problems from physical of psychological muscle trauma, climate changes, and infections. Lumbago and torticollis are typical examples.
*Treatment: pain relievers such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or tramadol, antidepressants like duloxetine and milnacipran and anti-seizure drugs like pregabalin.
Fractures (Fractura in Latin means to break)
the bone breaks with an external wound leading to the fracture site.
*The bone protrudes through the skin.
*Sudden bone break caused by disease, trauma, osteo/malacia, syphills, osteo/myel/itis, or a fall.
*The physican will reduce the fracture and place the fragments in proper position.
*With a compound fracture (two or more breaks) bleeding must be stopped. electrical currents have been found to speed the healing process.
*There are more than 40 different types of fractures.
Examples: Avulsion - the tearing of a piece of bone by the force of the muscle contraction. Closed - has no skin wound. Open - protrusion through the skin. Complete - is when bone is completely fractured. Double- is when the bone has two breaks. Green-stick - in where the bone is bent and partial fracture occurs on convex (outer) side. Stress or fatigue - fine hairline break. Compound or open - external wound leading to fracture and bones protrude through skin.
Colles' Wrist Fracture
Colle's Fracture (named for Dr. Abraham Colles) is a break of the radius at the epiphysis within 1" of the wrist joint. If the radius is broken alone, it will cause a displaced hand to a dorso/lateral position.
*Also called silver-fork fracture.
Com/minut/ed Fracture (together/small/state of)
*often seen in sports, motorcycle, and traffic accidents
*sudden breaking of bone
*Etiology include trauma and diseases, such as osteomalacia, syphilis, and osteomyelitis
Types: avulsion, blow-out, closed, Colles', complete, comminuted, complicated, compound, open, compression, depressed, direct, dislocation, double, epiphyseal, fatigue, fissures, greenstick, hairline, Hangman's, impact, incomplete, indirect, intrauterine, open, lead pipe, pathologic, pre/trochanteric, ping-pong, Pott's, spiral, spontaneous, stellate, stress, trans/cervical, and transverse
Genu (knee) Varus (out) and Valgus (in)
bow legged - knee turned out
knock knees - knee turned in
a toe that is curled due to a bend in the middle joint of the toe
Hammer Finger (mallet finger)
flexion deformity of distal joint of finger
*caused by avulsion of extensor tendon
Claw Foot or Toe (pes or talipes cavus, Hallux Malleus, or Claw Toe)
*high arched foot joints, flexion of toes, and a shorted Achilles tendon
*congenital or acquired
*claw foot and hammer toe are usually permanently flexed
Herniated Intervertebral Disc
the nucleus pulposus protrudes through the annular fibrosis and causes pain by putting pressure on the spinal nerve or cord
*most people recover from slipped discs without surgery, such as using stretching and exercise
*Kypos in Greek means hunchback
*exaggerated posterior spinal curvature
*tuberculosis of bone in children (Pott's disease) often causes Pott's curvature
*syphilis, TB, poor muscle tone, or fractures
Lord/o/sis (swayback, bent back)
*abnormal anterior concave curvature of spine
Orthosis: force straightening, correction, or control of bone deformities, especially lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis
*lateral curvature of spine
*lateral "C" or "S" shape in spine
*lower curve is primary curve
*treatment: braces, casts, exercise, surgery, and spinal adjustments
Muscular Dys/trophy (faulty/muscular development)
Duchenne's muscular dys/trophy is genetically linked to the degeneration of muscles, the anterior nerve roots, the spinal cord, and the brain stem (also called tabes dorsalis - wasting away/dorsal nerve root).
*Erosion of motor nerves to diaphragm and heart leads to early death.
(Duchenne congenital muscular dystrophy is the wasting leg and pelvic muscles, spreading to the involuntary muscles.
*(It causes waddling gait and lordosis (swayback).
*fat accumulates in calf of leg
*eventually leads to tachycardia and apnea
-osis (condition of)
*collapse of vertebrae of spinal column
*increase in porosity of bones
*enlargement of bone marrow and spaces within bone at expense of solid parts
*compact bone becomes fragile and resembles cancellous bone
*caused by malnutrition, lack of exercise, and menopause
Severe Osteo/por/o/sis (Surgery - Pelvic X-ray -Meno/paus/al)
*increasing calcium, exercise, hormone therapy
*Genu osteo/por/o/sis (knee, bone/porous/state) (bow leg - genu varum)
This is the inflammation of bone especially the marrow, caused by pathogenic organisms.
*Pain is felt in the body part along with leuko/cytosis, fever, sweats, and muscle rigdity over that specific body part.
Antibiotic treatment is required along with sedation.
Immobilization of body part and surgery if abscesses are present. osteo/myel/itis can be caused by infections and diseases such as sickle cell disease.
*This specific anemic condition causes clubs and inflammation of the bone marrow.
Polio/myel/itis (grey/bone marrow/inflamed)
*viral inflammation of grey matter of spinal cord
*muscle paralysis and immobility
My/asthenia Gravis (muscle weakness, heavy)
*abnormal condition characterized by chronic fatigue and muscle weakness
*defect in conduction of nerve impulses at myo/neural junction
*lack of muscle depolarization
*problems with chewing and swallowing
Pectus Carinatum (young bird)
AKA chicken or pigeon breast
*deformity in which sternum or breast bone projects anteriorly or forward
*caused by rickets or obstructed respiration in childhood
AKA funnel or sunken chest
*may require surgery to provide space for heart and lungs
Pes Planus (foot; plane or like-plate)
*longitudinal arch of foot is flattened inward and down
AKA flat-footedness (sole)
AKA plano/valgus (foot arch inward or "downward pronation")
Pes Cavus (foot; cavity or hollow)
Pes cavus is where the longitudinal arch of the foot is raised or elevated outward.
This cavity or hollowness is referred to as a high arch.
Also called plano/varum (foot arch outward or "supinated up")
Tears and Separations (occurs in muscles and their tendons)
*muscles in back of leg are commonly involved
Inguinal area: located btw. abdomen and thigh, this tubular passage of lower muscles of abdomen contains spermatic cord and round ligament of females
*common site of hernias
Spina Bi/fida (thorn/cleave or two clefts)
*congenital defect in walls of spinal cord caused by lack of union of vertebral laminae
*lumbar part of spine
AKA rachioschisis (condition of splitting of spine)
*Hydro/rrhachis is a spinal tumor by CSF pushing outward from spinal cord
*occulta form is where closure of vertebra does not take place but there is no protrusion
Sprain (espraindre - to wring) Muscular-tendinous problem
*swelling, discoloration of skin over joint
REST - area
ICE - cold compresses
COMPRESS - with bandages
ELEVATE - raise injured area
Talipes (Tali/pes - Ankle and Foot)
Talus (ankle) Pes (foot) E- (out) In- (in) Vers/ion (turning/process)
*any deformity of ankle and foot
Tali/pes "in/vers/ion of foot" and "e/vers/ion of ankle"
tend/o- (stretch, sinew or tough)
Tendin/vitis is the inflammation of a tendon and tendon sheath.
*This tendon or fibrous connective tissue serves to attach muscles to bone or other body parts.
*The Achilles tendon is the largest, strongest, and thickest tendon.
*Manual tendinitis: this is usually caused by bone growth that is seen in degenerative arthritis, which is osteoarthritis. The central tendon of the diaphragm consisting of a flat apo/neruo/sis which is a flat sheet of fibers. It inserts itself into the posterior abdomen on bone and other connective tissues (CT). It can be referred to as a fascia.
*Tennis elbow:Pain develops over the lateral epi/condyle of the humerus radiating too the outer side of arm and forearm. it is aggravated by dorsi/flexion and supin/ation of the wrist. There is weakness of the wrist and difficult in grasping. it is usually caused by strain. Immobilize area with a splint or strap, and heat the area. Surgery may be needed.
this is a wound or injury to the body or mind
Anthropo/metr/ic Measurements (human/measure/refers)
*height, weight, and body circumference, body fat, and skin folds
*determine protein and and calorie reserves
*calori/metry is heat measurement (measures oxygen used and CO2 or nitrogen released during oxidation
*triceps skin calipers measure subcutaneous body fat
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