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Daniel and Ian

Data Input

The process of entering date into a computer system GIGO

Data Capture Forms

A table used for writing down data that is collected

Visual verification

Person who enters the data and checks visually for errors

Double entry verification

Two sets of data are entered and then compared, more expensive and time consuming but more accurate


Checking that the data entered is correct


Entering data written on a questionnaire or form using a keyboard and saving it

Direct data entry

Data directly entered into the computer

Input screen/Online form

Entering information into a form on the screen

Optical mark reader

Written data that is turned into digital data without having to type the data

Card reader

Using cards to store information


Records information and inputs it at times and in locations where it would be difficult for a person to do it

Radio frequency identification (RFID)

Microchips that store information and can be read wirelessly

Field length

Checking the number of characters that are allowed to be stored in a field

Type check

Makes sure that the data is of the type expected. ie. 89 accepted, AB89 is not

Format check

Makes sure that the data is in the expected format. ie. dd/mm/yyyy

Range check

Makes sure data falls within a sensible range. ie. 0<dd<32

Presence check

Makes sure that data that is required is entered

Check digit

An extra digit added to a number that is calculated in a prescribed way that is known to the computer system, the check digit is then checked

Data Output

Many factors influence output design. One very important constraint is that output is dependent on the availability of the data it is derived from. If this is not already stored within the lCT system when output is requested, then the required Output cannot be generated .

General Guidelines

Audience, Usage of Tables, Diagrams, Graphs, Layouts, Timing and Accessibility. Use simple language to avoid the audience from being confused.

Internal Audience

This type of output is produced for the audience within the organization.

External Audience

This type of output is produced for the audience outside the organization.

Turnaround Audience

This type of output is produced for the external audience but it is expected that they will add data to it and return it to the organization. An example of a turnaround document is Cl printed questionnaire or data capture form.

Use of Tables, Diagrams and Graphs

Tables. diagrams and graphs can be used to summarize information. They should
be clearly labeled. with legends provided for all abbreviations.


Tables are often produced in spreadsheets and exported to other applications.

Pie Diagram

A pie diagram gives us information about relative importance of the takings from the sales of the different types of meals.


You could set up a validation check to make sure that only 'F' or 'M' were entered. Similarly 'Male' and 'Female' could easily be validated if this was being entered in an interactive form on a website.

Encoding Data

Codes can be used to represent lengthy snippets of language. It can be found in our everyday devices from mobile phones to laptops and cars!

Examples of Encoding Data

'1' could mean 'Can you switch the television on?'
'2' could mean 'Which channel would you like to watch?'
'3' could mean 'I'd like to have pasta for dinner!'

Why is a range check for dates important?

As if there isn't a boundary then the numbers may be incorrect and invalid.

What are an advantage and a disadvantage for double entry verification?

One advantage is that the data will be almost 100% correct, one disadvantage is that this type of checking takes much longer.

What is key-to-disk data input?

When data is on physical media then recorded digitally manually.

Why are codes used?

They are used because:
-Data entry is easier.
-Data entry is faster.
-Less space is needed to store the data on backing storage.
-Setting up validation checks is easier.
-Privacy can be preserved.
-Output can be more concise.

Give an example of a data input device.

Keyboard, Mouse etc.


Selecting a code helps clarify what data needs to be entered.

Example of using codes

Codes are widely used in ICT systems. Another example would be a database for a school library where books are classified as 'fiction', 'non-fiction' or 'reference' and there are other resources like 'CDs', 'DVDs' and 'Magazines' that can be borrowed.
Coding these as 'F', 'N', 'R', 'C', 'D', 'M' would speed up data input, reducing the space needed on backing storage and make output more concise.

Encoding Continued

Computers encode the language we use. You type the letter 'A' on your keyboard but it may be represented as a binary code in ASCII so that the computer can store and process it. The binary code is decoded before it is displayed for you to read.

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