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bio chap 3
Terms in this set (47)
1) What are nutrients that the human body requires in large quantities?
2) Which of the following is a micronutrient?
3) What is a deficiency of water in the body?
4) Which problem could be caused by a decrease in the body's normal water level?
5) How many liters of water does an average human need to replace each day by consuming food or drink?
6) In most cases, how does tap water compare to bottled water?
B) Bottled water and tap water are equally clean.
7) If sports drinks have a higher solute concentration than blood, what condition may result when you drink them?
8) Which macronutrient is the major source of energy for cell processes?
9) To which category of nutrients does table sugar (sucrose) belong?
10) Which food is rich in complex carbohydrates?
11) Which food is made up of many branching chains of sugar monomers?
12) In what molecular form does the human body store excess carbohydrates in muscles and the liver?
13) What two-word term describes food that has been stripped of most of its nutrients?
14) Why are whole foods better for your health than processed foods?
Processed foods don't contain all the vitamins and minerals found in whole foods.
15) Carbohydrates are an excellent source of energy for the body. If a candy bar and a pear contain an equal number of calories from carbohydrates, which is a healthier food and why?
The pear is healthier because it contains more vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
16) In what molecular form do plants store their excess carbohydrates?
17) Why is fiber an important part of a healthful human diet?
It may decrease the risk of certain types of cancers.
18) What are the monomer "building blocks" that make up proteins?
19) Which type of amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body?
20) Which food is most likely to contain all essential amino acids?
21) What happens to excess protein in the body?
It is stored as fat.
22) What is a major difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Unsaturated fats have a flat molecular structure, but saturated fats are kinked.
23) In commercial food manufacturing, what is the purpose of hydrogenation?
to make an unsaturated fat more saturated
24) What is a fat with many unsaturated carbons called?
25) What type of fatty acids include omega-3 and omega-6?
Essential fatty acids
26) If Erin would like to make a stir fry with an unsaturated fat, which fat would be suggested by Sam?
27) How are trans fats different from regular saturated fats?
Trans fats have flattened fatty acids
28) Why are the trans-fatty acids common in fast foods a concern to nutritionists?
They increase the incidence of clogged arteries
29) What is the purpose of vitamins in the human body?
Vitamins help enzymes function properly.
30) Which vitamin could build up to dangerous levels within the body?
31) Which substance requires sunlight for its synthesis?
32) If vitamins help molecules reduce the activation energy for necessary chemical reactions, what is their role within the cell?
33) Which vitamin is water soluble and cannot be synthesized by the body?
34) Which statement is true about minerals?
Minerals cannot be made by the body.
35) Tanya eats a vegan diet, which means that she does not eat any animal products. What would be a good source of calcium for Tanya?
36) Which essential mineral is provided by a diet rich in whole grains?
37) What is a function of antioxidants?
to decrease damage done to cells by free radicals
38) Which antioxidant is naturally found in cocoa?
39) Which process does not involve molecules moving across cell membranes?
40) What is diffusion?
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
41) How would amino acids and calcium ions from the bloodstream move across a cell membrane?
42) Which components form the structure of the plasma membrane?
A double layer of lipids with proteins embedded in it
43) Which molecule, when moving across a plasma membrane, would require the most ATP to be used?
An ion moving against a concentration ingredient
44) Although viruses are extremely small, they are too large to enter a cell by passive transport. Which process brings viruses into a host cell?
45) Which process fuses vesicles with the plasma membrane to move substances out of a cell?
46) What term describes the interior of a phospholipid bilayer?
47) How would the permeability of the phospholipid bilayer of plasma membranes be described?
C) The bilayer is differentially permeable
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